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The Factors And Causes Of Malnutrition

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The term malnutrition describes as a deficiency excess or imbalanced of wide range of nutrients resulting adverse effects on body which leads to poor health which increase the risk of malnutrition. In most cases malnutrition is a treatable condition that can be managed by optimizing proper food diet or by using oral nutritional supplements to patients where necessary to help maintain an adequate nutritional state. Malnutrition can refer as individuals who are either under or over nourished.


Lifestyle factors affecting on individuals as skipping their meals and get depended on snacks if they are less likely to prepare meals if eating alone can result in reduction of nutritional content probably may be the important etiological factor for Malnutrition. Lower income groups mostly prefer cheaper food having less content of necessary nutrients like protein, vitamins and minerals. There can be the mental health issues of individuals who may be facing problems like depression, self-neglect which can causes to loss of interest in food erratic eating pattern.


Due to health problems like injuries or illness there can be marked reduction in appetite because of modified secretion of cytokines, glucocorticoids, peptides and insulin like growth factors this problem is mainly caused in hospitals due to failure to provide regular nutritious meals or missed meals due to lack of help with feeding and clinical investigation when required. It was the thought that increased energy expenditure was responsible for disease related to malnutrition.

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Effects of Malnutrition can reduce the immune function. It can affect the functions and recovery of every organ systems loss of muscle and bone power which affect the mobility, weight loss by depletion of fat and particularly muscles and lead to organ mass. Effects of malnutrition on body organs can face the problems like depression or apathy, reduce cardiac output, impaired liver function, reduced the strength and can even decrease the immune system. Bone mass decline with weight loss if intake of nutritional components is insufficient to the individual. Simple provision for nutritional risk is enough to address by checking regular meals or food with better nutritional contents. There is the assessment of diagnosis for malnutrition which includes examination and medical history. In medical history there is an overview of daily food intake, food intolerance and can be due to religious or allergies and other restrictions. Can be checked by if patient is able to eat, sallow, digest specific amount of food to meet their required level of nutrients needed. Weight loss is the patient can be more challenging to assess, there should be a recent history of weight which can be intentional or unintentional weight loss of more than 10% of normal body from last 3-6 months is significant malnutrition risk.

Patients records like are they getting particularly high requirement for certain nutrients. Or the patient has excessive nutrient loss, cause chronic pancreatitis can cause malabsorption without steatorrhea. There are many possible solution to malnutrition as we need to search the causes of it, so it get more easy to target the solutions which includes as : Any of the other medications causing side effects which can be the cause of reducing the nutritional intake, if the patient is old which makes them not able to chew the food this type of patients need to refer to a dentist if needed.


A ‘food first’ approached should be given to the person who is affected by disease malnutrition by malnutrition management or advising the individual to have a proper intake of nutritious food with vitamins, protein and/or minerals. There should be proper diet with the nutrients in it to avoid malnutrition. Old age people should take proper care of their diet.


  1. Dera, M. and Woodham, D. (2019). Treating malnutrition in the community | British Journal of Community Nursing. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Oct. 2019].
  2. Saunders, J., Smith, T. and Stround, M. (2014). Malnutrition and undernutrition. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Oct.2019].
  3. Taylor, C. (2018). Malnutrition: causes, consequences and solutions. [online] Available at:—malnutrition-causes-consequences-and-solutions.pdf [Accessed 22 Oct.2019].

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The Factors And Causes Of Malnutrition. (2022, Jun 16). Edubirdie. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from
“The Factors And Causes Of Malnutrition.” Edubirdie, 16 Jun. 2022,
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The Factors And Causes Of Malnutrition [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 16 [cited 2023 Jan 31]. Available from:
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