Consumers buy spontaneously when they suddenly feel the strong desire to immediately buy product offerings without taking into account the consequences of buying a bid. Impulse buying is not only associated with low costs, but also with low liability. This may also be due to the high quality and associated products (Aruna, and Santhi, 2015). It can also be assumed that impulsive purchases are associated with hedonistic purchases, when the thirst for adventure, thrills, excitement and the feeling of flying can lead to a decline in self-restraint. Impulse purchases are relatively uncommon and exciting, emotional and not rational and are perceived as bad rather than good. It can also be assumed that no pre-order phases are relevant. A marketer can take a number of steps to increase the likelihood of a customer buying spontaneously in a given environment. As the term implies, the purchase was not specifically planned. The process is fairly widespread and can have a significant impact on marketers (Aruna, and Santhi, 2015). This paper mainly focuses on impulse behaviour of generations of X, Y and Z.
Aims of the research
The objectives of this research is to determine the impulse buying behavior of generations X, Y and Z. from the main objective the following secondary objectives came up:
- To find out the motives that urge the respondents to impulse buy
- To find out in what state the respondents make an impulse purchase
- To find out whether technology and online shops have an impact on impulse buying behavior
- To determine whether the impulse purchases are online or offline
- To find whether the respondents regret impulse purchasing a product or service
- To find out whether the respondents have made impulse purchases in the past six months.
There are several studies indicating a significant and growing trend towards unplanned purchases. Men and women differ significantly in terms of the affective components of the process, including the overwhelming desire to buy positive buying sensations and components of the cognitive process, including cognitive considerations and unplanned purchases, with the exception of ignoring the future (Aruna and Santhi, 2015). Product category, frequency of purchase, brand comparison and age were important factors for planned purchases and impulse purchases (Chan, Cheung, and Lee, 2017). Participants whose resources were depleted felt a greater need to buy than subscribers whose resources were not spent, were willing to spend more and actually spent more money in unexpected buying situations (Aruna and Santhi, 2015). There is no unified stance on this unplanned consumer behavior and incentives that trigger impulse buying. If competition in the market is high and all types of companies are promoting their activities, stimulating growth in the consumer goods market can be a strong competitive advantage (Chan, Cheung, and Lee, 2017). The central relationship between shop window, credit card, promotions (discounts, free products) and consumer behavior (Aruna and Santhi, 2015). Therefore, incentives should be realized in this business by creating a desire through sensory marketing and the ability to touch products, through clear and visible information on promotions and promotions, so that the consumer remembers what he needs. Unplanned purchases in pharmacies, supermarkets, department stores and shops. The above study highlights impulse buying in terms of consumer behavior in different countries. The literature suggests that Generation Y or adolescents around the world have different types of impulse purchases. Therefore, this study is gaining in importance in the analysis of impulsive buying behavior of young people (Aruna and Santi, 2015).
In earlier studies, impulsive buying behavior was defined as an unplanned purchase because consumers made a purchase without buying intent. However, many researchers agree that the concept of impulsive buying behavior should not be limited to an unplanned purchase, but should also consider the impact of the stimulus and thus the local decision. Later, the researchers recognized the importance of behavioral motivation impulses (Khan, Hui, Chen, and Hoe, 2016).
Consumer behavior and introduced theoretical foundations that focus on impulses of impulse buying behavior. According to previous results, situational, personal and demographic factors may be among the factors that determine impulsive buying behavior (Blut, Xiao, and Grewal, 2019). Currently, however, there is limited research to investigate the relationship between these factors and impulsive buying behavior (Khan, Hui, Chen, and Hoe, 2016).
Study Design and Approach: This study followed the descriptive design of the study using a single transversal approach.
Collection method and data collection. The task force for this study included full-time generations X, Y and Z in the United Kingdom. The study structure included the residents of the United Kingdom. From this sample structure, a non-probabilistic sample of one area was selected. An approach was used in which 122 questionnaires for volunteer work were administered to the three generations. The questionnaires were evenly distributed to both male and female from generation X, Y and Z
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Research Instrument: For the purposes of this study, a standardized, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required data. This questionnaire consists of two sections. The first section queried the subjects’ demographic data, and the second section used published research scales to measure the impulse buying behavior of generations X, Y and Z. A six-point Likert scale was used to measure the responses of the samples.
Thematic considerations: Before the questionnaires were distributed, they were submitted to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Business and Information Technology for approval and ethical explanation of the campus. The questionnaire was rated as low risk and an ethical resolution was issued.
Data Analysis: IBM Social Statistics Package (SPSS) version 23.0 for Windows was used to analyze the collected data. The statistical analysis included the descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics includes measures of frequency, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion or variation and measures of position.
Discussion and conclusion
The study focuses on the definition of impulsive buying behavior between generations X, Y and Z. Of the 122 respondents, 51.64% were men, 45.08% were women and 3.28% did not want to say so. The distribution by age was as shown in the results, with the representation of all three generations. According to the results, 85.83% of respondents have made impulsive purchases in the last six months, but 14.17% have not. Motivated respondents were discounts and offers, great shopping pleasure, social trends and peer pressure, and the fear of missing out on something (FOMO). This discovery is similar to the discovery by Sundström et al. (2013), suggesting that consumers with discounts and the ability to make a deal are easy to win. The inspiration of friends, mainly through images in social networks, affects the impulsive tendencies of the buyer. Other triggers that have a positive impact on the buying decision include free shipping and free returns, as well as the feeling that the retailer feels reliable to the consumer.
Respondents make impulsive purchases when excited, bored, sad, angry and drunk. This discovery is similar to the discovery by Sundström et al. (2013), suggesting that consumers seek immediate rewards, coupled with a sense of material happiness. Respondents in the study view impulsive purchases not as something negative, but as a way to achieve rapid stimulation in a bored state of mind.
The category of goods that respondents normally buy spontaneously are clothes, shoes, jewelry and watches. This is because these are products that you buy out of complacency and that make you happy. The highest percentage of respondents sometimes regret having made an impulse purchase. Some reasons why you think this product is unusable for the home and for cost overruns. This discovery is similar to the discovery by Sundström et al. (2013), suggesting that respondents in the study do not express regret, but tend to rationalize their purchases as useful products for them, even though at second glance they may well realize they do not need those three pairs of shoes.
In conclusion, the present study is an attempt to provide an integrative idea of the consumer behavior of impulses by examining multidimensional factors that influence the consumer impulse buying behavior of the X, Y, and Z. The main contribution of this research to science is the integrative consideration of factors such as situational and personal factors with their size, which influence the buying behavior of X, Y and Z pulses in a generation.