In the literature review of this study relevant points from the previously done researches in the area of confidence building in classroom through effective teaching practices are given. There had been researches on developing confidence in students regarding certain subjects. Some work has also been done to propose strategies to develop confidence. We need to first study about what kind of teaching practice are effective on the whole and how they can be effective to develop confidence. We also need to study what is confidence according to research and how can it be measured. The major findings of some of the most relevant studies are given below.
What kind of Teaching Practices are Effective
Effective teaching practices are the practices that are carried out by teachers to make a positive impact on the students. It is an art but simultaneously a science too. Effective teachers blend theoretical, conduct and communal aspects together while teaching in the classroom. Through every activity that they carry out their focus is on the active involvement of students. They teach, monitor and reinforce their students simultaneously. They reinforce positive behavior and also modify the negative behavior for bringing out an improvement in the personality their students. (Gage, Simonsen, Briere, 2012)
According to Snyder, 1978 the success of a student is the ultimate obligation that majorly lies on the shoulders of a teacher. He or she has to increase the positive variables in the personalities of students and strengthen them. Thus, the development of confidence in a student is also the responsibility of a teacher and confidence can be build effectively if the teachers make their teaching effective.
What is confidence
Confidence in yourself to be specific is the believe in yourself it a treasured strength for a person. It can also be defined as how much positivity one carries about their own self. This is an attribute that gives a person inner happiness first of all, secondly individuals who have self-confidence have high chances of convincing others and it motivates one to improve more and make progress for the achievement of better results in any field. Confidence is what leads an individual to success. (Bénabou & Tirole, 2002)
Self-confidence gives you opportunities to celebrate your success that is achieved by confidence itself, because having confidence in your skills increases the chances for you to achieve the desired results. It increases motivation to by giving you more energy to excel even more. Self-confidence and self-efficacy come under the same umbrella when talking about an individual’s future performance but self-confidence is built on the past performance so it emphases on that as well.
Relationship Between Confidence and Motivation
Binabou and Tirole, 2002 proposed that confidence enhances will power and motivation thus it is a very important trait of personality. Motivation is needed in order to carry out each and every task of in one’s life this reflects to the importance of confidence as well.
Attributes of Confidence
Mackay, 2006 in his book listed the given qualities as important characteristics of confidence building that are self esteem, assertiveness, achievement, and constructive feedback. All these factors need to be strengthened in order to boost confidence.
According to Bandura’s well acclaimed self-efficacy theory the term self-efficacy means individual’s views regarding their abilities to give desired performance. How individuals feel, think, motivate themselves and behave is checked by self-efficacy principles. Through the basic 4 procedures these views bring out varied conclusions. The four basic process to name are intellectual, motivational, emotional and selection procedures. Strong self-efficacy increases an individual’s inner happiness and level of achievement in a number of ways.
The individuals who have strong self-efficacy love difficulties because they take them as challenges that they want to complete rather than getting threatened by a difficult situation because they believe their abilities to cope with it . Such people make different challenges for them and complete them through their commitment towards their goal. They face failure by increasing their efforts and remaining persistence. If they ever face failure they regain their confidence in a short span of time. Such individuals assert that if they fail that means the effort on their behalf was not enough or they did not have enough information and they believe they can improve both these attributes. When they meet a threat, they are certain that they are able control the situation. These attributes make them achieve more in life hence they have less tension and they don’t fall victim to depression.
On the other hand, individuals who do not believe in their abilities and are uncertain about their skills run away from challenges because they find them threatening. They do make goals but are not persistent to achieve them and have week ambition. If a challenge comes their way they start thinking about their short comings, the difficulties that will come their way and all the negative aspects that they will have to encounter instead of focusing on the strategy that they need to adopt in order to successfully complete that challenge. Such individuals make little effort and lose hope in a short span of time. If they face failure they need a lot of time to regain their self-efficacy. They confuse their less performance with not having enough talent or abilities. Such people experience tension a lot and are usually depressed.
Sources of Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy or one’s believe in their capabilities can be strengthened by 4 major sources.
- The first one is having experience of success. The taste of success increases an individual’s self-efficacy. They need to experience that challenges keep coming but they are able to overcome them.
- Taking examples and making people role models can also create a sense of self-efficacy in people that if someone else can do something despite facing challenges then they can also do it. There should be a similarity in the circumstances of themselves and the role model.
- Reinforcing people that they can do it also increases their self-efficacy. People need to be told about their strengths and verbally influenced to believe in their abilities.
- Individuals also depend on their emotional stability regarding the believe in their capabilities. Mood also influences self-efficacy, this can be tackled by psychological ways and can also be improved by adding physical activities such as sports. (Bandura, 1994)
Role of Teachers in Confidence Building of Students
Begaj, 2014 conducted a study on role of teachers in increasing self-conﬁdence to high school students in this research mixed method approach was used. The researcher used interviews, questionnaires and observation for data collection. The conclusions of this research proposed self-confidence of students is highly dependent on the relationship between teachers and students, admiration and reinforcement by the teachers. The researcher highlighted the fact there are numerous proofs that psychologists, educators and students themselves believe that teachers can boost confidence level of students. This study also reinforced that the role of teacher is central in the confidence building of students.
Activities to Develop Self Confidence
Dammani and Indani, 2014 conducted a study development of self confidence as an effort to find the attributes of people having self confidence as well as to find out tactics to boost confidence. The researcher developed a scale of 30 items and made 138 participants fill it. The participants were selected from different fields. The attributes of confident people as per the findings of this research were dress nicely, walk faster, sit in the front, have a good posture, speak more, speak slowly, and workout. While the strategies proposed in this research to boost confidence were cherish good memoirs, do not sit idle, make eye contact, act confident, smile in the mirror, do not overthink, accept compliments with humbleness, be positive, be kind to negative self-talk, be thankful, recognize your talents, be proud of yourself, remain focused on contributing to the world, identify your insecurities, be rigid on your rules, bounce back from mistakes, compliment others, avoid perfectionism, spend time with people you feel good with and live in present. The researcher has claimed these activities to be useful for teachers, students, administrators, leaders and politicians to boost their confidence.
Teaching Practices that can Develop Confidence
There are a number of practices that teachers can adopt to develop confidence among their students. They need to remind them to believe in themselves. Teachers have the responsibility of giving their students the confidence that they can do everything. It is in the hands of teachers to endorse self-confidence and motivation in their students. (Ordonez, Carlos, Stoller, Friederike, Bernd, 2015)
As stated by Maples, 2007 if performances are made a part of classroom activities it proves to be very beneficial for both teachers and students. The author improvised melodramatic strategies i.e. making students perform without rehearsals or preperation while teaching English subject and in elementary classes and it helped in boosting the confidence level of students along with the course information.
Harting, 1985 stressed that confidence comes when you actually dare to perform and step out to keep your shyness aside. The strategy that individuals who lack confidence can use while performing is that they should keep their attention toward judging their own performance rather than thinking what people might be thinking of it, oral guidelines also help such people to perform with confidence. Once such individuals allow themselves to perform they will gradually start developing confidence.
Stiggins, 1999 asserts that confidence can also be developed through assessment if it is conducted with this intention. Assessment should be carried out in such a way that it does not make students lose their confidence end the help the ones who have already loosed confidence regain it. They must be given some sort of encouragement that makes them try more next time. A little achievement can also help in boosting one’s confidence.
Bunker, 1991 highlighted the importance of role play and physical activity in teaching and how it helps in developing confidence among students. During work and play activities students make small goals for them and feel confident after achieving they, they develop self-efficacy and start believing in themselves.
Traditional method of instruction or lecture method just imparts content knowledge in the students, that even in the short term memory and it does not focus on the development of practical skills of the students. Role play develops practical skills such as confidence in the students. It gives the students experience that is helpful for them in future life. It builds confidence in students by sharpening their communication skills. Through research it was proved that role play effects the confidence level of students positively, low confidence students exhibited improvement after being engaged in role play. (Dohaney, Brogt, Wilson, Kennedy, 2017).