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Effectiveness of Teaching Methods on Knowledge and Practice of Food Hygiene among Almajirai in Nigeria

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Abstract

The study assessed the effectiveness of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on knowledge and practice of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. A sample of 147 participants was drawn using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Participants were assigned to three groups and lesson on food hygiene was taught to them for seven weeks using demonstration, discussion and recitation methods respectively. Paired sample t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine the effectiveness of the three methods on knowledge and practice of food hygiene at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findings revealed that demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods have significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene and discussion teaching is the most effective; there is no significant effect on food hygiene practice. The findings also revealed that the three methods were not significantly effective in eliciting positive change on food hygiene practice of almajirai. It was concluded that seven weeks treatment protocol using demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods is effective in improving knowledge but not effective in eliciting positive change on food hygiene practice among Almajirai in Tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria. To elicit positive changes on food hygiene practices of almajirai in Kano Municipal and elsewhere, future intervention should increase the treatment protocol from 7 weeks to 10-12 weeks using a limited number of participants from each group (25-30).

Keywords: Almajirai, food hygiene, tsangaya, teaching methods.

Introduction

Teaching methods are meant to facilitate learning and aid in behavioural change. According to Saha, Poddar and Mankad (2005), the effectiveness of teaching method depends not only on what is being taught (content) but also on how it is taught (method). Therefore, selection of appropriate teaching methods and tools are essential for conducting effective food hygiene education programmes. Some empirical studies reported that the teaching method used in imparting knowledge in tsangaya which is basically recitation method have failed to make significant impact in improving knowledge and eliciting positive behavioural change among almajirai (Bano, 2008; Hassan, 2014).

To impart knowledge and inculcate good practices with regards to hygiene, the health educator should identify effective teaching methods and prepare communication materials that will suit the learner’s need so that positive knowledge and behaviour will be imparted to promote good hygiene practices (Rezei, Seydi & Alizadeh, 2004). Hygiene education messages can be communicated in different ways such as demonstration method, lecture method, discussion, recitation, posters, drama, storytelling, mass media, and home visits. According to Sjoberg and Errickson (2010), stated that no single method is always effective. However, teaching methods to be used in promoting hygiene practices should be those that will strengthen and empower individuals and community to work for change.

For school-age children, nutrition education has not only been shown to improve knowledge and skills but also eating and physical activity behaviours as well as health status (Yoon, Yang, Her, 2000; Rasanen, Lehtinen, Niinikoski, 2002; Belansky, Romaniello & Morin, 2006). According to Contento, Randell and Basch (2002) nutrition hygiene knowledge is integral to the achievement of healthful dietary behaviour and consequently in the improvement of diet quality.

Almajirai are children sent to traditional Qur’anic schools known as “tsangaya” by their parents to learn the recitation, writing and memorization of the holy Quran (International Institute of Islamic Thought [IIIT], 2004). Furthermore, almajiranci, is a system recognised by some individuals as service to Islam in Kano Municipal Local Government of Kano State and other states in the Northern Nigeria which may be surrounded with a lot of health hazards that may increase the risk of diseases and other infections that are related to poor nutritional hygiene practices and caused permanent damage among the almajirai’s (Hassan, 2012).

Kano-Municipal Local Government is a local government in Kano State, Nigeria. It is an urban settlement located within the ancient city of Kano Metropolis. Statistical data on tsangaya schools and almajirai in Nigeria shows that Kano State has the highest number of tsangaya schools and almajirai in the 36 states of the country (Kano State Government [KNSG], 2006). Furthermore, there is an estimate of 13,635 tsangaya schools and 3,004,981 almajirai across the 44 local governments of Kano State. The population of tsangaya schools and almajirai in Kano Municipal Local Government are 481 and 117,688 respectively. Majority of the almajirai in Kano Municipal are within the ages of 10-16 years living in different political wards and settlements (KNSG, 2009).

Tsangaya is an institution or school where the holy Qur’an is taught on a boarding basis to both children and adults (Iguda, 2007). The tsangaya institution is mainly for male students. In reality, tsangaya are often places for learning and behaviour change. The almajirai in tsangaya lives in poor conditions and unhygienic environment with little government support. They also have little or no access to good diet care as offered to students in formal schools (Abdulmalik, 2011).

The four tsangaya schools used in this study have the same characteristics. They are all located in sub-urban settlement; they beg for food they eat and no inspection is carried out to check for their food hygiene practices. Furthermore, they are basically taught from the holy Quran and Hadith in these tsangaya using the same method (recitation and memorization).

Moreover, the behaviour and practices of these almajirai are supposed to be guided by the holy Quran and the dictate of the Hadith. Islamic education through Quran and Hadith encourages hygiene practices. The Quran and Hadith in many of their verses specifically stated that cleanliness and hygiene are parts of the basic requirements to worship God (Quran, 2:2; 6:31, Al-nawawi, 119:798). It is therefore, expected that these almajirai should be seen observing food hygiene and cleanliness all the time. Unfortunately, this seems not to be the case based on personal observation of the researcher. The contradiction between the teaching of the holy Quran and Hadith and the practice of almajirai with respect to keeping food hygiene constitute a problem to the society. It was against this background that this study was designed to assess the effectiveness of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on knowledge and practice of hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal Local Government Area, Nigeria

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested:

  1. Ho1: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not have significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.
  2. Ho2: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not have significant effect on food hygiene practice among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.
  3. Ho3: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not significantly differ in their effectiveness in improving knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.
  4. Ho4: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not significantly differ in their effectiveness improving food hygiene practice among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Methodology

Research Design

Pre-test-post-test experimental design was adopted for this study. The purpose of using this design was to compare the three experimental groups with a control group in order to determine the effectiveness of each method on knowledge and practice of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal local government, Nigeria.

Population and Sample

The population of tsangaya in Kano Municipal Local Government is 481 while that of almajirai were 117,688 respectively (KNSG, 2009). A total of 147 almajirai were drawn as samples for this study using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Simple random sampling method was used to select three political wards from the existing fifteen (15) political wards in the study area, purposive sampling was used to select four tsangaya that have a population of 300 - 350 almajirai from each ward. Fifty (50) almajirai were drawn from each tsangaya as sample using simple random sampling balloting. Moreover, each tsangaya comprising of fifty almajirai was randomly assigned to demonstration, discussion and recitation groups respectively.

The instrument for data collection

A test to assess knowledge of food hygiene and a self-developed questionnaire named Almajirai Food Hygiene Practice Assessment Questionnaire (AF-HPAQ) were used as instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by experts in Community Health and Sociology and a reliability index of 0.86 was obtained using split-half method.

Procedure for data collection

A test was given to almajirai in the three groups; demonstration, discussion and recitation to assess their baseline knowledge on food hygiene. At the same time, a self-developed questionnaire was administered to them to seek their baseline information on food hygiene practices. For the almajirai that could read and write, items in the instruments were read to them and their responses were tick [√] by the researcher. Lessons were conducted to almajirai by the researcher with the help of 3 research assistants, one from each group using demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods over a period of 7 weeks. Koundinya and Martin (2011) supported the idea that health education teaching methods can be effective for 6 weeks and above. Meanwhile, lessons on different topics of food hygiene were conducted once in a week for 30 minutes lessons.

After seven weeks treatment protocol using different teaching methods to teach the almajirai, the same test and the questionnaire administered at pre-test were also administered to them to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocol on knowledge and practice of food hygiene at post-test.

Method of data analysis

Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Paired-sample t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test all the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Results

Ho1: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not have significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Table 1: Summary of independent t-test on effect of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria: Teaching Method

Test

X

N

S.D±S.E

t

df

P

Demonstration

Pre-test

41.26

50

12.764±1.805

-1.736

49

.084

Post-test

46.48

50

18.876±2.669

Discussion

Pre-test

40.62

50

17.632±2.494

-3.465

49

.001

Post-test

55.26

50

21.902±3.097

Recitation

Pre-test

41.28

47

21.731±3.170

-.994

46

.326

Post-test

45.96

47

19.072±2.728

Demo: t=-1.736, t=49, P>.05; Discuss: t=-3.465, df=49, P.05

The mean score of post test (46.48) is > the pre-test score (41.26) on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai taught using demonstration method. The results further indicated insignificant gain in knowledge. Hence, the Ho is accepted, meaning that demonstration teaching method has no significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal. Meanwhile, Table 1 revealed that the mean score of post test (55.26) is > the pre-test score (40.62) among almajirai taught using discussion teaching method, the results also shows significant gain in knowledge. Hence, the Ho is rejected, meaning that discussion teaching method have significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene. The table also shows that the mean score of post test (45.96) is > the pre-test score (41.28) among almajirai taught using recitation teaching method, the results also shows insignificant gain in knowledge. Hence, the Ho is accepted, meaning that recitation teaching method have no significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene.

Ho2: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not have significant effect on food hygiene practice among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Table 2: Summary of independent t-test on effect of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on food hygiene practice among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria: Teaching Method

Test

X

N

S.D±S.E

t

df

P

Demonstration

Pre-test

15.60

50

3.796±.537

-7.184

49

.000

Post-test

20.14

50

2.726±.385

Discussion

Pre-test

16.90

50

3.417±.491

-6.419

49

.000

Post-test

21.02

50

2.208±.312

Recitation

Pre-test

17.77

47

3.177±.463

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-3.858

46

.000

Post-test

20.28

47

2.740±.400

Demo: t=-7.184, t=49, P the pre-test score (17.77) among almajirai taught using recitation teaching method, the results also shows significant change in practice. Hence, the Ho is rejected, meaning that recitation teaching method have significant effect on food hygiene practice.

Ho3: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not significantly differ in their effectiveness in improving knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Ho4: Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not significantly differ in their effectiveness improving food hygiene practice among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Table 3: Summary results of ANOVA on the most effective teaching method among demonstration, discussion and recitation on knowledge and practice of food hygiene:

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Knowledge of Food Hygiene

Between Groups

2698.815

2

1349.408

3.368

.037

Within Groups

57696.015

144

400.667

Total

60394.830

146

Food Hygiene Practice

Between Groups

22.303

2

11.152

1.693

.188

Within Groups

948.404

144

6.586

Total

970.707

146

F=3.368, df: 2,144, P 0.05

The results on Table 3 showed significant difference in effectiveness of knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai taught using demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods (F=3.368, df: 2,144, P 0.05). This finding has provided basis for retaining null hypothesis 4. This signifies that demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods were not significantly effective in eliciting positive change on food hygiene practice among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Table 4: LSD posthoc analysis summary of anova on the effectiveness of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching method on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal.

(I) Group

(J) Group

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Demonstration Method

- Discussion Method

-8.780*

4.003

.030

-16.69

-.87

-Recitation/Memorization Method

.523

4.067

.898

-7.52

8.56

Discussion Method

- Demonstration Method

8.780*

4.003

.030

.87

16.69

- Recitation/Memorization Method

9.303*

4.067

.024

1.26

17.34

Recitation/Memorization Method

- Demonstration Method

-.523

4.067

.898

-8.56

7.52

- Discussion Method

-9.303*

4.067

.024

-17.34

-1.26

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Results of LSD Post – hoc comparison on Table 4 indicates that there was a significant difference in the effectiveness of demonstration and discussion teaching methods (P< .05); and discussion is more effective than a demonstration in improving knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria. The table also indicates significant difference between discussion and recitation teaching methods (P< .05); and discussion is more effective than recitation teaching in improving knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.

Discussion

This study compared the effectiveness of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on knowledge and practice of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Local Government Area, Nigeria.

The outcomes of this study shows significant difference among demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal Local Government Area, and discussion teaching method was the most effective method in improving knowledge of food hygiene. The finding of this study is consistent with report of Jarvis (2004) which stated that discussion teaching method is the most effective in imparting knowledge on hygiene among school children. This method is designed to motivate the learners to discover understanding and feelings concerning the subject matter being taught. Discussion teaching method has been identified as an inclusionary and participatory teaching method that facilitates critical thinking skills in learners (Brookfield, 2004), which is an essential component for improving knowledge regarding hygiene. Meanwhile, findings of (McGlynn, 2005; Peck, Ali, Matchock, & Levine, 2006) are consistent with the findings of this study. These findings revealed that discussion teaching technique was more effective over lecture, demonstration and recitation because it encourages students to actively engage in classroom activities, and it has been found to promote deeper levels of thinking and better facilitate encoding, storage, and retrieval.

It was revealed by the outcome of this study that demonstration, discussion and recitation were significantly effective in eliciting positive change on food hygiene practice of almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal local government area of Kano State. This study was consistent with findings of (Bryan, 1998; Evans, Madden, Douglas, Adak, O’Brien, Djuectic, Wall & Stainwell, 1998). These findings revealed that health education intervention using different teaching methods such as demonstration, discussion and recitation methods have no impact on nutritional educational programs and significantly brought changes in food hygienic behaviours and adoption of recommended food hygiene practices (Gentry-Van, Laanen & Nies, 1995; Wardlaw, 1999; Dean, Reames, Tuuri, Keenan, Bankston, Friendship & Tucker, 2008).

Summary

This study compared the effectiveness of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods on knowledge and practice of hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria. The results of the findings of this study revealed that discussion teaching method have significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene while demonstration and recitation teaching methods have no significant effect on knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria. The findings also revealed that demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods have significant effect on food hygiene practice. Furthermore, the findings show significant difference in the effectiveness of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods and discussion teaching method was the most effective method over demonstration and recitation teaching method. The finding of the study also shows no significant difference in the effectiveness of food hygiene practice among almajirai taught using demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods that demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that:

  1. Demonstration and recitation teaching methods do not have impact in improving knowledge of food hygiene of almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.
  2. Discussion teaching method has impact on improving knowledge of food hygiene of almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.
  3. Discussion teaching method is the most effective teaching method over discussion and recitation teaching methods in imparting knowledge of food hygiene among almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria.
  4. Demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods have impact on food hygiene practice of almajirai in tsangaya in Kano Municipal, Nigeria, though the impact could illicit positive change in practice and behaviour of almjirai.
  5. The impact of demonstration, discussion and recitation teaching methods do not differ in eliciting positive change on food hygiene practice of almajirai in tsangaya in Knao Municipla, Nigeria.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations were made:-

  1. Kano Municipal Local Education Authority in collaboration with Federal Government through Universal Basic Education Commission, and Kano State Universal Basic Education Board in its attempt to formalize tsangaya education, should include food hygiene education, as part of its tsangaya curriculum in order to improve the knowledge of almajirai and change their practices on issues related to hygiene in order to prevent diseases associated with poor hygiene.
  2. Health care providers particularly health education teachers should give opportunity of exchange of ideas and should encouraged positive involvement of almajirai in the teaching process using discussion teaching method in order to improve their knowledge and make the concept of food hygiene more meaningful to them.
  3. Practical ways and strategies of observing food hygiene should be demonstrated and emphasized to almajirai in tsangaya to make the lesson workable in order to illicit positive change in their hygienic behavior. Instructional aids (teaching aids) such as

References

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