What is global journalism?
Global journalism also known as international journalism is the practice of gathering and dissemination of information across the national boundaries. It brings issues of the foreign into a global perspective or dimension. It is often confused with foreign journalism which is the presentation of a media entity in a foreign country. According to (Berglez Peter, 2008) the focus of global journalism is the increasingly relations caused by globalization and that while it exists in news, it is yet to be established as a style, and is often confused with foreign journalism. The vital role of global journalism is fast changing as a result of technological advances that have brought about easier and faster access to all kinds of communication and information (Agarwal AK, 2012).
Nevertheless, the term global journalism has sparkled different reactions and definitions from different scholars. Some of the famous scholars who talked about this wide concepts were as follows:
- (Berglez Peter, 2008) defined global journalism as a practice on relations between people, places and their actions talking much on matters that affect the world in general such as global warming, natural disasters and political welfares. According to his point of view, global journalism has shed a reality of inter-connection of the social practices and their realties across the globe. He argued that that news media content seems to be becoming more unterritorial, involving complex relations and flows across national borders and continents, as he cited the transnational crises such as the Muhammad cartoons controversy, the avian flu epidemic and climate change.
- (Herbert, 2001, 2-4) said that Practicing global journalism also means allowing for other attitudes, other cultures, other approaches. It means that there can often be many truths, not just the one western certainty that western journalists have grown up with. … The practice of global journalism also means not becoming too dependent on official sources; we should see for ourselves, be there, judge, and report for ourselves. News manipulation can be easy when reporters don ́t know the country, the people, the politics. Journalists live in a world where they have to take risks. This is never more the case than in the global context. … Practicing global journalism is about taking risks. News is about risk. And risk is becoming so much worse now that there is an increasing danger that reporters will stop going into the real trouble spots for fear of their lives.
- Peter Lang (2013) who created his own definition from a multiple of scholars derived global journalism as how news collecting, processing and disseminating has become for the global consumption. He further indicated that once an information is prepared by the media, it is prepared for the sake of global consumption and not regional or national level as before. While national and regional broadcasting and news production is still a practice, global journalism has been the topic for the current journalism process and practice.
The Practices Of Global Journalism
Some researchers claim that the global journalism practice has been incorporated into everyday news production, as a natural response to the increasing interconnectedness created by globalization. In empirical studies of global journalism as a practice, researchers do not seem to agree about its presence and impact in the news media, while some researchers claim to see some of it’s elements in the newsroom. This has created a contradiction on where global journalism is prominent in the media.
(Cottle 2009) suggested that global journalism may be expanding from reporting on exceptional crises into the general news flow. He pointed out that “we live in a world that has become radically interconnected, interdependent and communicated in the complex formations and flows of news journalism” (Cottle 2009a, 309),which can be observed in the news coverage of various transnational and/or global phenomena such as terrorism, environmental pollution, financial meltdowns, the nuclear weapons issue, Internet surveillance, and epidemics such as H1N1 influenza or Ebola. (Cottle 2009).
Nevertheless, media houses place their reporters to different potential regions where they can be able to gather as much information as possible on the global issues that occur. Example media like Reuters and CNN send their reporters to areas like Iraq and Syria for coverage.
There is a need for more empirical analyses, not least quantitative ones because such studies can be able to shade more light concerning global journalism’s significance in the everyday news output.
Regardless, when analyzing global issues, media houses usually involves experts on the issue, by either initing them as guest or even in form of video calling, if they are from a foreign country. This helps a story to be more balanced and audiences to get an in-depth point of view from someone who is more familiar to that specific area.
Distribution Of News
Global news is intended to be disseminated to a wider context and that is globally. This is due to the matters/issues that are of global concern. Global news is usually distributed through various outlets such as TV, Radios, Social media, blogs and websites.
More importantly, it is often available in various languages, making it easily accessible to people who use different languages. In addition, media houses usually are established in various parts of the world while creating channels that are specifically available for people of a certain characteristic. Example: BBC Swahili, CGTN English, Aljazeera Middle East etc
The Theories Relating With Global Journalism
The theory originated from libertarian thoughts from the 16th century in Europe. The theory states that people are rational and their rational thoughts lead them to find out what are good and bad. The press should not restrict anything even a negative content may give knowledge and can make better decision whilst worst situation.
This theory is widely related with global journalism. Most global media entities are independently owned. From Organizations to agencies i.e CNN, REUTERS and the like, these media practice their freedom and are free to report on any global issue happening, regardless that it is negative or not.
Social Responsibility Theory
Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship, but at the same time the content of the press should be discussed in public panel and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self regulations or both. The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and libertarian theory as it gives total media freedom in one hand but then external controls in other hand.
The theory involves more of investigative and interpretative stories, giving media more freedom to seek a story in depth. This is highly practiced in global journalism as media has the chance to investigate and analyze more on the global issue at hand, while giving full account and taking responsibility of their failures and errors.
Conclusively, global journalism is still in question about whether it is a new style in journalism or it is not. In my view, global journalism could play a huge role into bringing solutions to the global issues are more interpretive and analytical. It should be taken in importance as this might be the present and the future of journalism.