Hybrid Power Generation System

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Abstract— – Energy is essential for the economic growth and social development of any country. The world facing the problem of power generation. The fossil energy sources are limited and needed to use properly. This power generated increases the greenhouse effect. The used of the combined solar and wind power system can be more benefits in order to make useful throughout year. In this presented research the review is carried out on the different types of solar and wind associated hybrid system for developing the proposed research study

I. Introduction

We require electricity for operating almost all the appliances we use in our day to day life. So it has become an indispensable part of our life. Now there are two ways to produce electricity first by using non-renewable sources of energy and second by renewable sources of energy. With increase in population and advancement of technology, consumption of electricity is also increasing exponentially. Simultaneously, we have to increase the production of electricity also in order to meet the demands of growing population. The biggest disadvantage with the usage of conventional resources is that their usage causes pollution due to the production of various pollutants like ash in case of a coal power plant, smoke in case of diesel power plant, radioactive material in case of nuclear power plant. Maintaining these pollutants is not an easy task and it also requires a lot of money. So we have to find some other methods to produce electricity. The best possible way is by using non-conventional sources of energy. Out of all the possible options available in non-conventional sources of energy, solar and wind are the best methods. As tidal energy can be used only on the sea shores, ocean thermal energy can used in the middle of the sea and its setup is also very difficult. While solar and wind are available in all the areas of the world and setting up their power plant is also not a cumbersome task. The availability of solar power could be a major concern, because it is accessible for around eight hours during a day, on the opposite hand wind is accessible nearly for twenty-four hours. But we can do one thing to make up for that problem by integrating these two together. During foul weather conditions one of them can be used while during normal weather both can be operated together. So in this paper we will be describing a hybrid power system.

II. Literature survey

Ashish S. Ingole et al. (2015) Now a day’s electricity is most needed facility for the human being. All the conventional energy resources are depleting day by day. So we have to shift from conventional to non-conventional energy resources. In this the combination of two energy resources is takes place i.e. wind and solar energy. This process reviles the sustainable energy resources without damaging the nature. We can give uninterrupted power by using hybrid energy system. Basically this system involves the integration of two energy system that will give continuous power. Solar panels are used for converting solar energy and wind turbines are used for converting wind energy into electricity. This electrical power can utilize for various purpose. Generation of electricity will be takes place at affordable cost. This paper deals with the generation of electricity by using two sources combine which leads to generate electricity with affordable cost without damaging the nature balance.

J.Godson et al. (2013) Renewable energy sources i.e., energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, hydro power, geothermal and ocean resources are considered as a technological option for generating clean energy. But the energy generated from solar and wind is much less than the production by fossil fuels, however, electricity generation by utilizing PV cells and wind turbine increased rapidly in recent years. This paper presents the Solar-Wind hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energies in Sun and Wind to generate electricity. System control relies mainly on micro controller. It ensures the optimum utilization of resources and hence improve the efficiency as compared with their individual mode of generation. Also it increases the reliability and reduces the dependence on one single source. This hybrid solar-wind power generating system is suitable for industries and also domestic areas.

Ali Diabat (2014) Among the wide range of problems facing our world today, there is global consensus that greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions have the largest negative impact on our environment. GHGs include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydro fluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons. These gases help maintain the temperature of the earth at comfortable levels for organisms, and a decrease in their levels would result in a temperature that could be too low for us to survive. However, because GHGs allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere, but trap the heat radiated off the earth’s surface, an increase in these emissions would result in an increase of the planet’s temperature, or global warming, to levels that could be fatal to living organisms. Many scientists also believe that the increase in natural disasters is fueled by climate change, since atmospheric and oceanic patterns shift as the Earth’s temperature increases.

Karim Mousa et al. (2014) Although solar and wind energy are two of the most viable renewable energy sources, little research has been done on operating both energy sources alongside one another in order to take advantage of their complementary characters. In this paper, we develop an optimal design for a hybrid solar-wind energy plant, where the variables that are optimized over include the number of photovoltaic modules, the wind turbine height, the number of wind turbines, and the turbine rotor diameter, and the goal is to minimize costs. Simulation studies and sensitivity analysis reveal that the hybrid plant is able to exploit the complementary nature of the two energy sources, and deliver energy reliably throughout the year.

Medugu et al. (2014) A hybrid power system consisting of PV-arrays and wind turbines with energy storing devices (battery bank) and power electronic device was designed and constructed in this paper. The system is aimed at the production and utilization of the electrical energy coming from more than one source, provided that at least one of them is renewable. The efficiency of the designed power electronic device is about 95% and 73% for capacitive and resistive loads respectively. The integration of the hybrid is to electrify a residential house and its surrounding in order to reduce the need for fossil fuel leading to an increase in the sustainability of the power supply. This approachis techno-economically viable for rural electrification.

Yazhini.B et al. (2017) In this paper, it reviews some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Since most renewable energy sources are intermittent in nature, it is an important task to integrate a significant portion of renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure mainly the electricity flow takes place in one direction from the centralized plants to consumers. When compared to large power plants, a renewable energy plant is having less capacity. But as emerging resources renewable energy should be taken into account.

V. K. Gajbhiye et al. (2017) Energy is essential for the economic growth and social development of any country. The world facing the problem of power generation. The fossil energy sources are limited and needed to use properly. This power generated increases the greenhouse effect. The used of the combined solar and wind power system can be more benefits in order to make useful throughout year. In this presented research the review is carried out on the different types of solar and wind associated hybrid system for developing the proposed research study.

III. Description

Hybrid Systems Now we have become even more interested in usage of renewable energy sources as an alternative method of producing electricity. Hybrid systems are basically an integration of solar panels and wind turbine, the output of this combination is used to charge batteries, this stored energy can then be transmitted to local power stations. In this system wind turbine can be used to produce electricity when wind is available and solar energy panels are used when solar radiations are available. Power can be generated by both the sections at the same time also. The usage of batteries is to provide uninterrupted power supply. This system requires high initial investment. The power output of the wind turbine is AC which is converted to DC with the help of a rectifier. The Arduino controller is used in the system to control the switching between the converters with the help of a driver circuit.

IV. Hardware Requirements

For building prototype module we need following components.

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A. Solar Panel

Solar Panels A solar cell is used to convert solar energy into electric energy, it is also known as photovoltaic cell. It is a p-n junction diode which consist of two different layers of a semiconductor material called as n and p region, n region is heavily doped and is thin while pregion is lightly doped and is thick. The radiation falling on the surface of p-n junction diode can pass through the n side. Most of the depletion region is contained in the p region which is lightly doped. The extent to that the n region may be penetrated is set by the wavelength of the falling radiation. Electron–hole pairs area unit generated within the n and p region, due to the difference in potential the electrons move to the n region and holes towards the p region. The current starts flowing when an external load is connected to the terminals of the n and p regions. To make a solar panel multiple solar cells are connected in series and parallel combinations, they are connected in such a way that the output obtained is additive in nature.

B. WIND TURBINE

Wind Turbine Wind is a renewable source of energy. This turbine is used to convert the kinetic energy of the wind into electric. The generator connected to the shaft of the blades converts the energy to electrical energy. The wind turbine is of two types depending upon the rotating axis of the blades, first is vertical axis wind turbine and horizontal axis wind turbine. The output of the turbine depends on the speed of the wind. The power generated by the turbine is fluctuating. In order to get continuous provide of power initial the electricity is keep during a battery unit then it’s transferred to the load.

C. BATTERY

Batteries The batteries are used in order to store the electricity that is produced from wind and solar energy. The capability of battery might vary reckoning on the dimensions of turbine or solar energy plant. Battery ought to be having low maintenance and charge outflow ought to even be low. Considering all these parameters free discharge type is the best option available. Multiple batteries can be connected in series and parallel tincrease or decrease the capacity of the battery, depending upon the output from the hybrid systems.

.D. INVERTER

A power electrical converter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC).The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the look of the particular device or electronic equipment.

Inverter As we know that most of the electrical appliances require AC voltage, so first the DC output of the batteries will be converted into AC voltage with the help of an inverter and then it will be transferred to the loads. The inverter must be having over voltage protection, reverse polarity and short circuit protection.

E. Arduino:

Arduino/Genuine Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P (datasheet). It has fourteen digital input/output pins (of that six are often used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.

The Arduino/Genuine Uno board can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power will return either from AN AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter are often connected by plugging a a pair of.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from A battery are often inserted within the GND and Vin pin headers of the pwr connecter. The board will operate AN external provide from six to twenty volts. If equipped but 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may become unstable. If mistreatment over 12V, the transformer could overheat and harm the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

V. Conclusions

Developing hybrid systems is one amongst the foremost convenient and effective answer for manufacturing electricity as compared to non-renewable energy resources. It is not only less costly but also it does not cause any harm to the environment. Anotherthing is that it can be used to generate electricity in hilly areas, where it is quite difficult to transmit electricity by conventional methods. Depending on the requirement its setup can be decided. All the people in this world should be motivated to use non-conventional resources to produce electricity in order to make them self-reliable to some extent. Long life, less maintainence ar a number of its and purpose. It just requires some high initial investment..

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Hybrid Power Generation System. (2022, February 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved July 2, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/hybrid-power-generation-system/
“Hybrid Power Generation System.” Edubirdie, 27 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/hybrid-power-generation-system/
Hybrid Power Generation System. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/hybrid-power-generation-system/> [Accessed 2 Jul. 2022].
Hybrid Power Generation System [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 27 [cited 2022 Jul 2]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/hybrid-power-generation-system/
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