Impact Of Super Massive Black Holes In The Formation Of Identified Galaxy Types

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Abstract

The super massive black hole present at the centre of most large galaxies emit large quantities of varying energy types, which affects surrounding quasars and seyfert galaxies (Nandra & Pounds, 1994). The gravity of the Super Massive Black Holes is another variable which affects surrounding bodies; wherein mass is attracted to the origin. Simulations using advance software has proven that the energy released from SMBH, as well as their gravity, causes both stars to form due to gas condensing, as well as halting star formation due to the radiation emitted causing the environmental temperature to be too high for the collapse of bodies to occur (Stone & Metzger, 2014). SMBH with relatively small mass do not actively affect galaxies far away; they only affect masses close to them, and during the formation of galaxies due to the extreme galactic super winds generated. The effects that black holes have during, and after the creation, cause the known distinctions between differing types of celestial bodies, as well as being the progenitor to most matter due to their inherent energy transforming properties, which hasten evolution.

Introduction

Super Massive Black Holes have a systematic influence in the formation and creation of galaxies; wherein their gravity and emittance directly influence surrounding masses. The gravity of a SMBH is inexorably linked to the surrounding masses and galaxies; where the mass of SMBH has a sustained relationship of 1:700 to the bulge of a galaxy (Anon., n.d.). Due to this relationship being constant between all blackholes, this links the influences between blackholes and the creation of galaxies.

When matter is consumed by a black hole, the energy released is the order of 10% of the mass consumed, as per . This energy released directly affects surrounding mass as the heat, inertia of aforementioned energy has the potential to push away surrounding gas (Cattaneo, et al., n.d.).

Not only do black holes have an active role in galaxy formation, they also have significant influence during the galaxy’s lifespan, as they can allow or halt the formation of stars with the energy emitted.

Known Galaxy Types

There are three classified main galaxy types; Elliptical, Spiral and Irregular. All types refer to the visible shape of stars and matter surrounding the central bulge, or SMBH (Whitmore, n.d.).

While there are currently no definitive explanation for how different galaxy types originate, it can be assumed it is how the mass and matter originally interacted with the SMBH whilst galaxies were being formed via the merging and collapse of matter from the Big Bang (Whitmore, n.d.).

The differing types of galaxies can be assumed that they are the result from the differences in how matter was both affected via the gravity and energy emittance of SMBH; shortly after proto-galaxies combined to create SMBH, the mass surrounding them would be directly influenced due to the sudden change in gravity, as well as the energy forcing surrounding gas and matter outwards. It is from this force that the visual differences between the galaxy types are formed, as well as the SMBH’s gravity keeping mass within its gravity. The final stable circular orbit can be calculated via; , where G is the gravitational constant, M is the object mass and C is light speed in a vacuum (Instrumentation, n.d.). Accretion closer than this will eventually spiral into the SMBH, and be emitted as ionized matter, synonymously known as an astrophysical jet (Beall, n.d.)

Initial, and subsequent effects of SMBH

The first black holes were formed from the cores of the initial coalesced matter from the big bang; the death of the first stars. The matter that was released from the stars death would result in the catalyst for the ensuing generation of stars.

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The initial stars acted as the progenitor for all future stars through its explosive death, as well the consumption of existing mass. The Astrophysical jets that were emitted directly influenced the black holes surrounding galaxy, as well as triggering development of galaxies and stars light years away (Farley, et al., 1999). Just as black holes can promote stellar growth, they can halt its evolution; the extensive amount of energy they can release in a collimated beam may result in space being too hot, as well as the nuclei of matter active, for the collapse of gas and dust to occur (Pino, n.d.). This is further supported by the Active Galactic Nuclei properties within galaxies; the synchrotron radiation and Inverse Compton scattering emitted and caused by astrophysical jets resulting in most electromagnetic frequencies being emitted. This ionizing radiation will subsequently affect surrounding nuclei and molecules, resulting in a change in internal energy of the molecule (Mura, et al., 2017). Due to all molecules having mass, they subsequently have their own gravity as well as polarity. This causes surrounding molecules to either be attracted or repelled, resulting in amalgamations of matter. This ongoing interaction over billions of years since the initial stars resulted in both the elements present contemporarily, as well as all the celestial bodies in the universe.

It’s not possible to calculate the physical range at which black holes pull, as it is theoretically infinite due to lack of resistance in space; instead the attractive force between two differing masses is inversely proportional to the square distance separating them, relative to the product of their weight; (Hagen, 1970). However, all mass in space has its own gravity, with the gravity being proportional to the objects mass

Galaxy Bulge

It has been observed with definitive evidence that there is a direct correlation between bulge size of the host galaxy, and the mass of the SMBH. It was also mathematically proven that the black holes mass can be estimated to be 0.5% that of the galaxy’s bulge.

It can be observed from both figures that there is a prevalent divergence between classical and elliptical bulges; wherein ellipticals tend to have larger bulges, and thus larger SMBH. Ellipsoid galaxies tend to consist of older stars (Minniti & Zoccali, 2007), and lack the prevalence of gas (Wegg & Gerhard, 2013). Because of this, the product gravity and torques produced not only by the SMBH, but surrounding objects will subsequently be greater than that of a bulge of similar size consisting of gas. Hence forth, the ellipsoid bulges tend to be larger due to a larger sum of gravity.

It has also been theorized that SMBH may form a bulge if an infalling gas cloud is introduced, after the black hole’s creation.

The evolution of introducing a gas cloud into a SMBH, forming an ellipsoidal eccentric disc. Some mass was lost to the black hole; however, some mass was able to obtain a seemingly circular-stable orbit. Due to the rate at which this interaction occurs, and is observable, it is only feasible with in simulations.

Impacts of Black Holes Compactivity

The total available energy from a proton infinitely falling is given by . When the proton, or mass, reaches the surface of the star, r=R. Due to this collision, the kinetic energy of the free-falling mass has to be emitted as heat, the rate of which is . Hence, Luminosity can be calculated: The accretion efficiency of which is given by ; therefore . From these formulae, the Schwarzschild radius can also be derived: . From the culmination of these equations, the total efficiency of energy transfer from kinetic energy, to accreted matter into heat can be calculated: . From analysis of this efficiency equation, it is concluded that the efficiency of energy is proportional to that of how compact the star is; the more compact, the more efficient (Li & Paczyński, 2000). Due to the excess energy being emitted as heat, the less efficient a system is the more accretion energy the black hole will produce. This would forcefully cause interactions between the surrounding celestial bodies and the ejected energy, due to being mostly x-rays, may cause some molecules to elevate to a higher orbital level, resulting in a photon to be released, or for the molecule to be ionized.

Conclusion

Conclusively, from spacial observations, theoretical physics, and derived equations, black holes are a definitive and significant part in universes history and evolution. As our knowledge of space and behavior expanded, our denomination of black holes altered from that of destruction, to creation. It has been proven through numerous methods that the size, and thus gravity, of SMBH have a proportional relationship to their bulge’s size, which directly affects other qualities of the galaxy. In contrast to this, compactivity of black holes directly influences its efficiency of transferring energy to different states; wherein the compactivity and efficiency are proportionally related. The contemporary Universe would not be here without black holes, as they are the progenitor to differing elements, celestial bodies, as well as the expulsion of massive amounts of energy which hastened evolution.

Bibliography

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Impact Of Super Massive Black Holes In The Formation Of Identified Galaxy Types. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 17, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/impact-of-super-massive-black-holes-in-the-formation-of-identified-galaxy-types/
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