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Influences Of Bacterial Cellulose To Avert Needs Of Plant Cellulose

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In the Current era, rapid urbanization, industrialization, and declining forest which are ultimately leading to a global climate changes. The huge scale of lessening of forestation for firewood, building, paper products, textile and many other applications are gradually imposing a serious negative impact on the environment. Inherently, it has limit application due to the presences of hemicellulose and lignin. Therefore, this studies shows benefit of bacterial cellulose alternative in the near future. As it possess several important and unique properties than plant cellulose such as high purity, higher absorptivity, greater mechanical strength, higher degree of polymerization & crystallization, In-situ mold ability, biodegradability, biocompatibility and many others. Furthermore, this review suggest that should be investigate a potent cellulose producer to develop an economically viable process for large scale production of bacterial cellulose so it can bear out at least some of the cellulosic requirements


Biopolymers” are natural polymers which consist of monomeric subunits covalently linked in living organism. (Klemm 2004). Naturally, derivatives of biopolymers are assorted, plentiful and essential to life. (Tina 2001; Steinbuchel and Rhee, 2005). Widely, biopolymers are carry out vital roles which are preservation and expression of genetic information, catalysis of reactions, storing of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients, and defense against biological or harmful or environmental factors. Also, act as feelers of biotic and abiotic factors, communiqué with living and non-living matter and structural components of the cells and tissues. (Steinbuchel, 2003 ; Steinbuchel and Doi, 2005).

Cellulose is of great economic importance globally (Siqueira et al., 2010; Fu et al., 2013). Mostly, the world’s economy depending on artificial cellulose with molecular formula C6H10O5) n, However, in plant cellulose content 90 % of cotton and that of wood is 40 – 50 %. These are most important resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as cellulose derivative as cellophane, rayon, and cellulose acetate (Saxena and Brown, 2005; Peng et al., 2011).Conventionally, the demand of cellulose comes across by cotton and wood, which cover nearly 90% and 50% cellulose respectively. But, due to the presences of lignin and hemicellulose it has assured complications and disadvantages with usage of plant cellulose to achieving elementary necessities in many industrial processes. Moreover, the plant resources cannot tolerate growing demand for cellulose necessities because of fast diminishing forest resources, decreased agricultural land and other environmental concerns. Also naturally, difficulty in removal of hemicellulose and lignin from the cellulose, edges to applications (Brown, 2004). However, gradually raising deforestation by harvesting plant cellulose, which are influences to ecological balances. Therefore, necessitates for finding alternative for plant cellulose which are free from difficulties for deforestation. Due to the respect of lessening deforestation for cellulose, Bacterial cellulose are most viable and substitute to plant cellulose and free from lignin and hemicellulose, higher degree of polymerization, machine-driven capacity, high level of crystallnity high purity, amazing water absorbing capacity, in-situ mold ability, biodegradability and biocompatibility (Iguchi et al., 2000; Brown, 2004; Torres et al., 2012).

The fibrils of bacterial cellulose are higher thinner than plant cellulose (; Czaja et al., 2007a; Chawla et al., 2009; Cherian et al.,2013). Novel features of bacterial cellulose are absorptivity and strength, due to these properties it has emerged as a versatile biopolymer in multi industries such as food, textile, paper, cosmetics, and audio products in medical field. (Brown et al 1992; White and Brown et al 1989). In Biomedical science, Bacterial cellulose has been natural candidate for many applications such as wound dressing materials, micro vessel and micro nerve during surgery, also used as a soft tissue substitution material for urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, maxilla-facial or plastic surgery. (Czaja 2007b).

However, some bacteria can produce cellulose where its industrial uses are possible .which belongs to Axetobacer, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Sarcina and Acetobacter xylinum is a most common efficient cellulose producer in the presences of oxygen and glucose (Chawla 2009) because this bacterium is a non-photosynthetic organism which depends can procure glucose, glycerol, or other organic substrates from others and that can convert into pure cellulose (Brown 1976).

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However, the few products are known to be available like, bacterial cellulose gel, a health tonic, which used to clean whole alimentary canal and washes out faeces from our body and bacterial cellulose act as facial masks which can be used for skin and body care ( , audio speaker diaphragms by using bacterial cellulose (Yamanaka 1994) and Nata de Coco, is also known and used as a dessert or diet food in Philippines (Ng and Shyu, 2004).

But still there are lack of efficient cellulose producers, low yields, high cost and inefficient large scale processes.


The necessities of prevent forest and environmental pollution due the rapid industrialization, declining forests and global climate changes, by producing bacterial cellulose and it offers a wide range of applications, where plant cellulose can hardly be used. Because it has a unique property which possesses to solve the problems associated with the use of plant cellulose. Also, bacterial cellulose may be of superior quality having more durability and efficiency than plant.

Instead of plant cellulose, bacterial cellulose is considerable to industrial importance due to varies unique properties are high purity, high mechanical strength, amazing water absorbing capacity, in-situ mold ability, biodegradability and biocompatibility. By virtue of these unique properties of bacterial cellulose were found various practices in industrial sectors like healthcare, food, cosmetics, paper, textile and etc. In addition, producing of cellulose from microbes are more eco-friendly, prevents deforestation end environmental pollution. However, at present, the scarcity of potent cellulose producer/s has low yields, expensive and lacks of efficient scale up procedures are the hurdles in the commercialization of this important biopolymer.

However, applications of biopolymers are reliant on cost and scale of production. In future, must be investigating to develop an economically viable process for large scale production of bacterial cellulose so it can bear out at least some of the cellulosic requirements instead of using plant cellulose. Still, have question on bacterial cellulose can play with traditional cellulose sources this cannot be answered until commercial scale up and fermentation development become mature.

Thus, realizing the immense importance of bacterial cellulose and with a view to search a potent cellulose producer and to develop an efficient commercially viable process for cellulose production,


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