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Introduction to Water Collection & Treatment

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Unique water-related activities, behaviours or ideas you can implement in your dayto-day life to live more sustainably.

Bamboo drip irrigation

Drip irrigation is commonly known for reducing water usage in irrigation, and Bamboo drip irrigation is one step more ecofriendly than usual methods. This method is commonly used in North Eastern states of India by the native farmers for centuries. Water from mountain springs is channeled through bamboo poles to the farm land and liters of water is now converted in to hundreds of drops, this is then used to irrigate Betel, black pepper, are canut and other vegetables. Other than common drip irrigation this method is 100% carbon neutral because of the less use of synthetic materials in constructing the setup. Attempts have been made to introduce modern PVC pipe systems but farmers prefer to use their indigenous bamboo of irrigation. The new systems have met with suspicion and local farmers do not trust the new materials nor the people who supply them.

Ice Stupas

On the first glance ice stupas are actually glaciers, but they are artificially created for getting water for irrigation in Ladakh, Himalayas. Water is necessary for irrigation and the glacial melt water arrives only on late spring so villagers cannot start farming. To overcome this difficulty Indian engineer, Sonam Wangchuk invented this method. During winter they pipe freezing water from lakes or streams to upper hills near farm land and they allow water to sprinkle down which urges it to instantly freeze, which slowly forming ice pyramids of more than 64 ft in height. Since, it looks like Buddhists temples it is called Ice stupas. During summer, since the stupas are in low land compared to mountain they melt quickly before mountain glaciers and supply water to village.

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Rain water harvesting

Rain water harvesting is typically collecting rain water in storage ponds or tanks, usually rain water runoff from roof top is collected in reservoirs for future use. The water from roof is typically passed through different filters before storing. This water can be later used for cleaning and gardening, and if treated can be used for drinking too. A water harvesting method can be incorporated in to our house, business center or apartment and this water can be used in flushing, washing cloths and cleaning (these 3 constitute nearly 60% of total water use), this will significantly reduce our water bill. This is one of the most effective methods in water conservation and most widely used.

Waterless urinals

Billions of liters of water is daily used for flushing in toilet, with the use of water less urinals we can over com this problem. It is like a typical urinal and the only difference is it does not use water and since urine is 96% water it can easily flow. Water less urinals use sealant fluid that act as a vapour trap, it is actually a mixture of natural oils which are actually lighter than water. Urine pass through this liquid and flows out and oil remains. This can reduce the water usage dramatically.“

Composting toilet

Composting toilet is one which uses less water and instead decompose human waste and excreta which contain 90% of water. Water is evaporated and rest is decomposed using biological agents and reduced and later used in agriculture. This is almost natural and just like garden composting. A composting toilet must perform 3 duties:1. Compost the waste and toilet paper quickly and without odour2. Ensure safe and non harmful germ fee fertilizer at the end 3. Evaporate the liquid quickly.

Fix leaky fauceta

Slow drip from a tap can waste 7 to 10 gallons of water every day which leads to almost 3600 gallons per year. Even though its small consider 1 % of water is only potable. Each and every time while seeing a leaky tap just fix it quickly. During the summer, avoid using recreational water toys that use a constant stream of water, like sprinklers. But, if you do, have your kids use them on areas of your yard that need more water.8. Water grass at night or early morning to avoid evaporation – Watering your grass in the heat of the day allows the sun to evaporate much of the water before it’s absorbed into the soil, causing the need for more frequent watering. Watering grass in the evening or early morning before the sun rises achieves the same healthy lawn with less water.

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Introduction to Water Collection & Treatment. (2022, September 15). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 10, 2023, from
“Introduction to Water Collection & Treatment.” Edubirdie, 15 Sept. 2022,
Introduction to Water Collection & Treatment. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 10 Jun. 2023].
Introduction to Water Collection & Treatment [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Sept 15 [cited 2023 Jun 10]. Available from:
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