Dynamic systems theory outlines three constraints, (for instance individual, task and environment) that influence the emergence of behaviour. These constraints interact with one another to self-organize and create a spontaneous behaviour. In badminton my performance of a rear-court player had constraints that played a significant role in both limiting and enabling my performance.
In badminton, the objectives of the game were to set up an effective drop shot from a rear-court position to score a point against the opposing defenders. My performance in the game were presented as one environmental constraint that acted as a barrier for myself and the team to lose points. This outcome were because I was a beginner in badminton, and I took extra time to recognise certain aspects of the game in terms of knowing how to perform an effective drop shot or whether learning how to do a net kill. After four rounds in the game, my environmental constraint required me to perceive relevant information when the opposition players performs a weak shot, this now enables me to modify my movement by forcing a weak return too my opponent, in which this causes my opponent to perform a high lift hit that allows me to perform a successful drop shot from the rear-court position.
As a theory, affordance theory suggests that the world is perceived not only in terms of object shapes and spatial relationships but also in terms of object possibilities for action (affordances) — perception drives action (J. J. Gibson 1904-1979). Affordance and the influence of this dynamic environmnent can be seen in the video evidence where my performance were affected by environmental constraints and certain limitations. Nevertheless, dynamic system for instance affordance has enable to modify my performance in terms of controlling my actions when performing a strike or a drop set and also being able perceive the environment and limitations that were around my surroundings.
Hit Drop Shots to the centre of the court strategy
Tactical awareness can be defined as a player’s ability to read game play, to identify tactical problems or opportunities, choose appropriate tactics to solve the problem or to exploit the opportunity, and then execute their choice using their technical ability (Brendon Moy, Glenn Amezdroz 2019).
My personal tactical strategy will focus on performing a drop shot from a rear-court position while hitting the shuttlecock in the centre of the court with the interaction of a range of task, learner and environmental constraints that limits and enable my movements and decision-making. Task constraints can be identified through the significant interaction of constraints on the emerging behaviours of learners or performers in various sports as they accumulate functional states of movement organisation in archiving goal task (Newell 1985, 1986). In additional, constraints are normally related to the person, task and the environment, in which can also be defined as “boundaries” or aspects that restricts motion of the entity under consideration at any moment in time (Newell, 1986, p.347). As the striker from the rear-court position, the task constraint of aiming to perform a drop shot from the rear-court position, which is at the back of the court is the most significant task constraint that impacted my movement. The objectives of a striker at the back court or any court is to set up a potential rally-winning opportunity to score against their opponents, that requires playing with intelligence rather than brawn. Moreover, most backcourt strikers uses strategies such as; drop shot to achieve their goal and score against their defending team. The objectives of the desired movement sequence of setting an attack accurately, in terms of performing a drop shot from the backcourt is another constraint that influences my actions as rear-court striker.
Learner constraints describe the personal characteristics of the performer that can limit or enable movement and decision-making. In additional, through the manipulation of certain constraints, different information is presented to the learner. In turn, the learner is then challenged and channelled to find their own movement solutions to the problems faced or the goals needed to be achieved. These constraints are the boundaries in which our pupils can search for those solutions. These learner constraints may include certain structural aspects of the learner such as height, weight or muscle mass. Moreover, adding to the aspects of constraint, constraints may include not only structural, but also functional in terms of relating to one’s behavioural functions for instance, attention motivation. The learner constraints that limited my performance of an accurate drop shot and my personal tactical strategy was my height in relations to the net and opposition players. My height was a limiting learner constraint for me is that I am not tall and can be beaten easily by the opposition players, in terms of striking the shuttlecock near the net to perform a net kill or even in the backcourt when the shuttlecock goes up high. Through the influence of dynamic system approach to learning, I have managed to develop the basic tactical strategy of not only hitting a drop shot when the shuttlecock is in position, but also jumping so I can also perform a powerful dropshot in the centre of the court. This tactical strategy allowed me to successfully beat opposition players and to also allowed me to perform and execute an accurate dropshot from a rear-court position.
Environmental constraints are the characteristics in the environment that change the level of difficulty of a task or activity when it is performed in that environment. For instance, walking may be more difficult if equipment is scattered on the floor. For a student, the sport of volleyball is constrained environmentally through the height of the net and the size and type of court. Nevertheless, environmental constraints are factors that exists in the current environment that can gradually influence one’s performance and decision- making process. The environmental constraints that enabled the development of my performance in regard to dropshots at a rear-court position were myself as limitation not knowing how to play (which is mention earlier) and also my height as a limitation.
The interactions of the task, learner and environmental constraints allowed me to make decisions about and my movement strategies also when performing dropshots and also optimised my performance in terms of jumping from a rear court position when the shuttlecock goes higher and then executing it with a dropshot. The personal tactical strategy of performing a drop shot to the centre of the court was the emerging behaviour that came out of the interaction of these constraints. My personal strategy tactical strategy is evident of my movement system in response to the influences of task, learner and environmental constraints through a dynamic systems theory approach to learning.
Evaluating and justifying the personal strategy- Hit Drop Shots to the centre of the court
My personal tactical strategy of performing a hit drop shot to the centre of the court at a rear-court position has been partially effective in optimising my performance of the movement strategy of setting up for an attack. When performing the hit drop shot to the centre of the court at a rear-court position, the results of this tactical strategy were varied. In most case, the hit drop shot at the centre of the court was effective. This allowed me to successfully strike a dropshot from a rear court positioned. Nevertheless, using this tactical strategy this helped optimise and modify my gameplay in terms of performing a drop shot and helped my team score a point against opposing team.
Limitations that happened during this tactical strategy were that in order for me to perform a successful hit drop shot to the centre of the court, were that of several environmental constraints that had to be dealt-with and optimised. Performing a successful dropshot enables me to know the right steps and procedures to execute, in which my knowledge of these steps were unknown, therefore this has become a personal limitation to my performance and also my team’s performance.
The implications of the tactical strategy of performing a hit dropshot to the centre of the court can be best described through affordance. Hit dropshot to the centre of the court is one an effective way to score against opposing defenders. In some of the gameplay I was able to modify and transit my performance which allows me to provide a clear successful drop shot from the rear-court position through affordance. This is because I have modified my performance using affordance in terms of controlling my actions when striking and also using appropriate decision making that can befit my performance and my team.
Theses outcomes and implications of performing a hit dropshot to the centre of the court has justify the use of this personal tactical strategy and to optimise the movement strategy of setting up an attack. In badminton, I would maintain this tactical strategy when playing from a back-court position, where this tactical strategy helped modify and overcome certain barriers and limitations such as, environmental constraints and learner constraints. Earlier on as discussed about my height that acted as learner constraint, where the upheld of this tactical strategy allows me to overcome by umping when the shuttlecock goes up high and then strike which conceives a powerful dropshot from the rear-court positioned. Nevertheless, in the future I would still use this tactical strategy, because this tactical strategy proves that it can overcome my barriers and limitations in badminton as a rear-court positioned striker.
Evaluation of my personal performance- setting up for an attack
To evaluate my personal performance when setting up for an attack, I have selected the body and movement principles which is space awareness that consists of; use of court space, direction of movement, planes of movement and movement pathways. And the other body and movement concept that I have chosen as well is quality of movements which also consists of; speed, accuracy force and flow of movement.
When applying the body and movement concept of relationship to my performance in badminton as rear-court striker, in my video you can witness that I am able to respond quickly to location of the of a hitter as I modify to execute a drop shot. While I am performing a strike, you can see that in the video evidence space awareness in terms of using of court space, and the direction of movement. Also, when executing a dropshot I am required to quickly decide about analysing the shuttle in terms of when it lands on my side and whether I’ll hit the shuttle with speed or with a slower pace. Therefore, in the video evidence you can see that I have smashed the shuttle with speed when jumping, that allows my opponent to move back but in this case my opponent unsuccessfully defended their net.
To further improve my performance and ability to set up for an attack as an rear-court positioned striker in badminton, I need to do further research and know how to play different positions in badminton but also use my affordances as an strength to strike against the opposing team and finally for further improvement of my skills in badminton I need to understand that badminton is always about playing intelligently instead of just brawling randomly.
Evaluation of my personal performance- defending against attack
When defending against an attack, in my video evidence you could see that I am able to perform few blocks with accuracy that allows me to successfully defend against my opposing hitter. As a rear-court positioned striker it is vitally important that I am able to use this specialised movement sequence to block off opposing team from striking. Moreover, when trying to perform a proper defence I was able determine where the hitter is planning to hit next, this accomplished where I perceive their body movement (their arm gesture) where it is planning to strike next and then I follow where there are going to hit next and by doing this technique, this enables me to defends my position in badminton.
- Renshaw, Ian & David’s, Keith W. (2014) Task constraints. In Eklund, Robert & Tenenbaum, Gershom (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. SAGE Publications Inc, Los Angeles, pp. 734-737. (In Press)