Population policies are directly dealing with the rapid increase of nation population in order to control the state population density. With the increase of the population, consumption level of the natural resources is growing. Hence, natural ecosystems cannot produce their resources for the entire human being. Consequently, since 1950 to 2009, there has 4.6 billion population increase of entire world. Then, population policies have been introduced in many countries to control the population in order to manage the available resources for future generation. Accordingly, many developed countries are using population control methods and population policies are taking major role in many aspects of countries. Thus, this report mainly illustrates the what are the population control strategies that developed countries are using in current world.
Majority of the Indian people are not well educated, and they are not concerning about the country’s population. Because they are illiterate and fatalist. Still Indian population is growing in high level of 2 percent annually. Therefore, India has been implemented several population techniques over several periods since at past.
- Pre–independence period – At past, Indian government didn’t consider about growth of the population. After they identified about the population increase in small amount, Indian government introduced small natural methods for publics such as self-controlling, abstinence and safe periods instead of using artificial birth control methods.
- The period of Neutrality – In this time period, former president Jawaharlal Nehru established first family planning program in India.
- The experimentation period – Under this phase, as a family planning strategy, they introduced clinical approach to provide awareness sessions for families. Main purpose was to motivate and educate the birth control rate.
- The beginning of the population control policy – as a improvement of the third phase, Indian government decided to implement village development committees to enhance the attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of people for the better population control.
Furthermore, improvements of above phases, Indian government introduced national population policy in 1976 and following shows the major policies that they are using,
- Government introduced specific marriage age for entire people in India such as for girls to 18 years and for boys to 21 years.
- They introduced several devices for couples.
- Provided education about the population growth for entire states within the school environment.
- According to the number of children in family, Indian government gave incentives for the sterilization.
- Government promoted tax reduction campaigns for privet companies in order to birth control in families of employees.
- In 2001, Indian government was introduced women empowerment programs to give awareness education about the population control.
By imposing above policies, Indian government expected following future targets.
- In 2045, continue zero growth rate of population
- Expected to reduce infant mortality rete to below 30 per thousand live births.
- Reduce birth rate to 21 per 1000 by 2010.
- Reduce total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2010.
Policy impacts on society
- With the impose of policies regrading the abortion, Indian government had to facilitate for safe abortions in hospitals.
- Indian government authorities have been introduced vocational training programs for self-employment women.
- Indian healthcare authorities promoted funds for community health care facilities to regulate the social health.
- As an infrastructure development, health care ambulance services introduced for the clinical services of mothers as public service.
- Similarly, Indian authorities built district wise clinical and hospitals for social health care in order to reduce the mortality rate.
At present, China has been encompassed the highest population when compare with the world’s population. It has been ranked as twenty one percent of the entire world’s population. Hence, this overpopulation has been made many serious issues in economic and ecosystems of China. Unavailability of resources, pollution, poor living conditions are major issues in Chinese culture. In order to provide better solution Chinese government has been imposed several policies for the entire population.
- In 1979 the chines authorities have been imposed population policies to reduce the birth rate. Therefore, they imposed late marriage concept for citizens. They encouraged to men for 28 is the minimum age for marriage and 25 is the minimum age for women.
- Also, Chinese government promoted longer spacing between births for families.
- Fewer children concept introduced at past in chines culture by chines government.
- At past, Chinese government imposed one child per family concept to control the overpopulation. Hence, citizens need to inform before the birth of child. Also, citizens must take the birth certificate before the child birth in order to fulfill the government requirements. Chinese government promote the above concept by giving special benefits to the one child families. Artform that, if they not agree to have one child, families need to pay taxes and can have loss of employment.
- Similarly, unplanned pregnancies should terminate under the rules and regulation of Chinese government. Before terminating the pregnancies, citizens need to get authorization from the relevant government department.
- In order to monitor the population growth, chines government established birth quota system. By measuring population growth Chinese government has been set several targets and government imposed punished to state departments when there has mismatching targets.
- As other population control policies, chines government has been imposed sterilization targets such as tubal ligations, vasectomies and abortions under the authorization of government.
Policy impacts on society
- Above shows the strict policies imposed by Chinese government and many other countries has been disapproved these some of policies for the human freedom. Hence, Japanese government had to conflict with the many countries.
- With the imposing of one child for family concept, there were decrease of male children. Thus, Chinese government had to release some of policies for couples who are having a daughter first then only allowed to have a second child.
- According to the Chinese population policies, access to the natural resources has been increased in Chinese society such as tap water, natural gas.
- With the birth control policies, Chinese authorities had to extend medical coverage and birth insurances for mothers who is following policies.
- Also, by imposing those policies, Chinese government has been reduced infant mortality rate from 200 per one thousand to 33 per one thousand.
Compare with the above two countries, japan is diverse country in population. Because of at present japan is facing high death rate compare with the other countries. Similarly, in Japanese population, 23 percentage is elderly, and this is the highest rate when compare with the world’s population. According to the Japanese statistics, fertility rate is 1.57 and Japanese culture consists of workaholic habits. Those workaholic habits have been leaded to the low fertility of the country. In japan, average age of marriage woman is 28.3 years and immigrations are not accepting for higher number. Henceforward, Japanese government expect that future population will fail by 20 percentage in 2050.accordingly, Japanese government imposed several policies to keep optimum level of population within the country.
- First policy is Angel plan which was introduced by Japanese government. In this policy, Japanese authorities are expecting to provide counseling and mentoring programs for couples in order to give awareness about the childbearing. By undertaking these concepts, government supposes to increase the young population in country.
- Second one is new angel plan. Japanese authorities planned to give incentives for each child such as $4600 per year until the 10-fertility rate. By giving incentives, government is expecting to encourage the couples to have more children.
- Third one is plus one policy and under this concept, they planned to give incentives for couples who have more children. Encourage more children-based environment is one of key target in Japanese current culture. Also, Japanese authorities has been built new day cares in order to create parent friendly working conditions.
- Japanese government has been introduced specific population policy equation such as, economic benefits + well being people = ideal population policy
Policy impacts on society
- As an economic change, Japanese government had to expand employment facilities and economic opportunities for young working sector. Because of most of the labors are young mothers in current social policies.
- If one family has more than two children, Japanese government is reducing some rate of rent and taxations from particular family.
- Japanese authorities promoted privet companies to provide supporting facilities for working mothers who are a already part of workplace.
- By imposing above policies, abortion rate has been decreased in the Japanese population.
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