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Speed Monitoring System Using CCTV: Analytical Essay

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Abstract

Road accidents are the serious humanity and public health issue in Metro Manila. The problem is increasing day by day. Apart from the loss of many lives, the effect of the road crashes on the country’s economy is massive. In Metro Manila, human factors are the main contribution of major road crashes while over-speeding is one of the accelerating factors to the increase of road casualties. Existing measures to limit these problems have been unsuccessful to diminish the road accidents thus only use of handheld devices such as the speed radar in express ways is applicable in limited area. Since these devices are automatic in the sense that they wouldn’t need to be operated manually by the Traffic Police, they have the continuous monitoring of speed and therefore their efficiency in speed detection is high. To address these challenges, a vehicle speed monitoring system integrated utilizing Close-Circuit Television(CCTV) is utmost important.

I. Introduction

Definition

Transportation implies the development of individuals and merchandise from one place (area) to another. This development can be through streets, railroads, water air, and pipelines. A productive transportation framework is from multiple points of view the vocation of a financial framework since it is the methods whereby the erosion of room is survived. The need to move products and individuals from place to put is objective and this has made conceivable the adjustments in transportation innovation so as to enhance the proficiency of developments. (Etim, 2017).

The impacts of transportation enhancement are found in the dynamic variation of spatial measurements, which have brought about the shrinkage of the world. The shrinkage is anyway not the equivalent everywhere. The transportation transformations have prompted an expansion in speed of movement and in this manner diminishes the time distance isolating spots. The significant advancement in transportation industry has likewise lessened transportation cost and as the aftereffect of the positive changes in transportation. (Etim, 2017).

Transportation is a necessary piece of present day life. As indicated by Kumari et al. (2010) and Rehrl et al. (2007), a great transportation network is one of each modernized city’s underlying needs since the present current society needs portability in each part of life. Consistently, individuals need to go to work, kids need to go to class, and items need to achieve the opposite end of the production network. In any case, as a result of the consistent populace development on the planet, transportation systems are endlessly being blocked. (Norbaneta, Teknomo, 2016).

Area Focused

Our Group pick the area of events which is the accidents. say it’s critical because the number of accidents is increasing since 2006 until these days. Furthermore, this numbers are excessively colossal, making it impossible to disregard. (Rey, 2018)

According to World Health Organization(WHO), there are 1.25 million people all over the world dies due to road accidents. This is the global problem that the (WHO) says that can be both predict and prevent. (Sy, 2017)

Safe Kids Worldwide Philippines(SKWP) executive director Jesus dela Fuente lamented that most of the fatal road accidents in the country are caused by speeding. (Punay, 2017)

Statistics

Here is some information we say it is critical:

As indicated by information, a total of 434 Filipinos passed away and 19,374 were injured in the capital district because of street crashes, a report by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) uncovered. This implies 4 in each 100,000 Filipinos passed away while 193 individuals in each 100,000 were harmed (Rey, 2018)

Despite the fact that the numbers were somewhat lower than a year ago losses – 446 dead and 20,876 harmed – street crashes still expanded generally.” (Rey, 2018)

There was a sum of 110,025 street crash occurrences in 2017, 703 more cases from a year ago’s figures of 109,322. The 2017 figure means about 299 cases for each day .(Rey, 2018)

figure 1. Cases of road crash in Metro Manila from 2005 to 2007

I. Related Studies

System Exemplars

First Exemplar

Title: Development and Testing of Adaptive Speed Monitoring System Integrated with alcoholic detector for Public Buses.

  • Author: Farjan Ramju
  • Ramadhani S. Sinde
  • Shubi Kaijage
  • Published: October, 2015

According to their abstract, “Road Accidents are the serious humanity and public health issue in Tanzania.” (Ramju, Sinde, Kaijage, 2015)

“In Tanzania, human factors are the main contribution of major of road accidents while over speeding and drinking driving is one of the accelerating factors increased of road casualties” (Ramju, et.al, 2015).

The Main Objective of this paper is to develop an adaptive vehicle speed monitoring integrated with the alcoholic detection system able to monitor the vehicle’s speed into defined speed limits and driver’s alcohol content during the journey of the road. (Ramju, et.al, 2015).

  • The system consists of GPS module that measure the distance and calculate the accurate speed of moving objects and also provides a location in term of latitude and longitude. A sensor node to measure the alcohol level of alcoholic content through breath. (Ramju, et.al, 2015).
  • A LCD display for the driver and GSM network to send the message to the database to be stored for future uses and constantly updating the law enforces on what is going on the road and take action in case of misbehaving. (Ramju, et.al, 2015).
  • The System will help most traffic Police in finding out driver’s behavior on the road accidents results due to the human factors and over speeding. (Ramju, et.al, 2015).

2nd Exemplar

Title: Estimating Speed Using a Side-Looking Single-Radar Vehicle Detector

  • Author: Shyr-Long Jeng
  • Wei-Hua Chieng
  • Hsiang-Pin Lu
  • Published: April, 2014

This paper displays a side-looking single-shaft microwave vehicle identifier (VD) framework for estimation of per-vehicle speed and length. The proposed VD framework is outfitted with a 2-D go Doppler recurrence balanced consistent wave (FMCW) radar utilizing a squint edge. The related Fourier processor utilizes a reverse engineered gap radar (ISAR) calculation to remove range and speed information for every vehicle utilizing a solitary pillar FMCW radar. The reenactment and trial results indicate exact estimations of vehicle speed and length. The estimation mistakes of speed and length were roughly ± 4 km/h and ±1m, individually. The proposed strategy has amazing location ability for little moving targets, for example, bicycles and walkers, at velocities down to 5 km/h. A business 10.6-GHz radar with flag handling changes was utilized in the tests. (Jeng, Chieng, Lu, 2014)

Figure 2, conventional side-looking vehicle detection system. (Jeng, et. Al, 2014)

Fig. 2 shows that side-looking radar detectors illuminate the direction perpendicular to traffic. A solitary radar indicator in a side-looking setup can cover different paths in the event that it is legitimately put and if fitting sign handling procedures are utilized. For this circumstance, microwave sensors can supplant countless, which are typically introduced in the movement paths. Opposite side-looking establishment is the most mainstream approach for current ITS applications. The working hypothesis of a side looking VD is equivalent to that of a solitary circle in every path. At the point when the vehicle length and vehicle speed are uncorrelated, vehicle speed v and vehicle length l are connected by v=l/t. The conventional installation of a side-looking radar does not use the advantage of detecting the Doppler effect of microwave detectors because the returned Doppler frequency generated by the vehicle is weak. Earlier investigations [5], [6] have identified the feeble Doppler move for estimating ongoing rate by utilizing wide bar reception apparatuses. The weakness of this methodology is debasement in range exactness. Numerous different examinations, have utilized different waveforms and frequencies to acquire range and speed data. Because of the weak Doppler effect, the perpendicular side-looking VD cannot apply the typical FMCW speed detection method by comparing beat frequencies of up and down sweeps or the displacement difference. Therefore, it is essential to build up a proper strategy with a limited pillar single-radar identifier to give precise range, speed, and vehicle arrangement gauges. (Jeng, et. Al, 2014)

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3rd Exemplar

Title: Method and System for Monitoring Speed of a Vehicle

  • Author: Berthand Boulet
  • Francis Bredin
  • Published: January, 2014

A method and system for monitoring speed of a vehicle moving along a road that includes road that includes risk zones. The method determines: road conditions for each zone; a threshold speed of each of risk zone based on the road conditions and on a distance to a posted speed limit within a high risk zone; a geographical position of the vehicle, a current risk zone in which the vehicle is moving based on the stored geographical position of the vehicle; and the current speed of the vehicle moving in the current risk zone which exceeds the threshold speed of a particular risk zone, resulting in performing a subsequent action (triggering an alarm with in the vehicle, and/or automatically regulating the speed of the vehicle). The action is specific to the particular risk zone and dependent on the road conditions. (Boulet, Bredin, 2014)

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a vehicle speed detection system. (Boulet, Bredin, 2014)

It is another object of the present invention to provide a method, system, and program for auditing a driver behavior to comply to upcoming speed limits. (Boulet, Bredin, 2014)

4th Exemplar

Title: Portable Roadside Sensors for Vehicle Counting, Classification, and Speed Measurement

  • Author: Saber Taghvaeeyan
  • Rajesh Rajamani
  • Published: Feb 2014

This paper centers around the improvement of a versatile roadside attractive sensor framework for vehicle tallying, arrangement, and speed estimation. The sensor framework comprises of remote anisotropic attractive gadgets that don’t require to be inserted in the roadway-the gadgets are set alongside the roadway and measure traffic in the promptly nearby path. A calculation dependent on an attractive field display is proposed to make the framework hearty to the mistakes made by bigger vehicles driving in the nonadjacent path. These false considers cause a 8% blunder if uncorrected. The utilization of the proposed calculation lessens this mistake to just 1%. Speed estimation depends on the count of the cross relationship between’s longitudinally separated sensors. Quick calculation of the cross relationship is empowered by utilizing recurrence area flag preparing strategies. A calculation for consequently rectifying for any little misalignment of the sensors is used. A high-precision differential Global Positioning System is utilized as a kind of perspective to quantify vehicle paces to assess the exactness of the speed estimation from the new sensor framework. The outcomes demonstrate that the most extreme blunder of the speed gauges is under 2.5% over the whole scope of 5-27 m/s (11-60 mi/h). Vehicle grouping is done dependent on the attractive length and a gauge of the normal vertical attractive stature of the vehicle. Vehicle length is evaluated from the result of inhabitance and assessed speed. The normal vertical attractive stature is evaluated utilizing two attractive sensors that are vertically separated by 0.25 m. At long last, it is demonstrated that the sensor framework can be utilized to dependably tally the quantity of right turns at a crossing point, with an exactness of 95%. The created sensor framework is smaller, versatile, remote, and reasonable. Information are exhibited from a substantial number of vehicles on an ordinary occupied urban street in the Twin Cities, MN, USA. (Taghvaeeyan, Rajamani, 2014).

II. Goals and Objectives

The Goal of our System is to limit the event of street mishaps due any little misalignment of the sensors is used. A high-exactness differential Global Positioning System is utilized as a kind of perspective to quantify vehicle rates to assess the precision of the speed estimation from the new sensor framework. The outcomes demonstrate that the greatest mistake of the speed gauges is under 2.5% over the whole scope of 5-27 m/s (11-60 mi/h). Vehicle grouping is done dependent on the attractive length and a gauge of the normal vertical attractive stature of the vehicle. Vehicle length is evaluated from the result of inhabitance and assessed speed. The normal vertical attractive tallness is evaluated utilizing two attractive sensors that are vertically dispersed by 0.25 m. At last, it is demonstrated that the sensor framework can be utilized to dependably tally the quantity of right turns at a crossing point, with an exactness of 95%. The created sensor framework is minimal, versatile, remote, and modest. Information are introduced from countless on a standard occupied urban street in the Twin Cities, MN, USA. (Taghvaeeyan, Rajamani, 2014).to over speeding.

The main objective is to develop a system that can capture the information of the vehicle if it reaches the maximum speed limit through closed-circuit television (CCTV).

Our Specific Objectives is to make a Graphic User Interface(GUI) that fits to the system and easy to understand, is to make a program that can calculate the exact speed of the vehicle automatically through videos, is to generate reports to the admin about the information of the vehicle that violates the rule, to have a real time notification when the vehicle violates the speed limit rule and to test and implement our system to know the effectiveness of calculation the approximate speed of the vehicle.

III. Methodology

Conceptual Framework

Figure 3. Conceptual framework

Software Engineering

SCRUM characterizes the frameworks advancement process as a free arrangement of exercises that joins known,

Serviceable devices and methods with the best that an improvement group can devise to construct frameworks. Since

These exercises are free, controls to deal with the procedure and inborn hazard are utilized. SCRUM is an Enhancement of the usually utilized iterative/gradual article arranged improvement cycle.

For the improvement of the Speed Monitoring System that can support examination of encroachment of the over speeding of a vehicle the architects used scrum programming headway process that can be used to direct and control complex programming and thing enhancement using iterative and slow practices and is an overhaul of iterative and steady way to deal with conveying questioned situated programming.

Source of Data

When conducting a study, the developers must have the collection of necessary information needed to order to develop the system. To obtain an information, the developer sets up a CCTV camera on the accident prone area. If the vehicle commits an over speeding violation, the system collects data using the captured video the vehicle. The video converts to the pictures using frame to frame and the data gathered is the speed of the vehicle.

Development Tools

Convolutional Neural Network. Is one of the principle classes to do pictures acknowledgment, pictures arrangements. Articles location, acknowledgment faces and so forth., are a portion of the zones where CNNs are broadly utilized.

Intermittent Neural Network-is a class of counterfeit neural system where associations between Nodes shape a coordinated diagram along an arrangement. This enables it to display transient unique conduct for a period arrangement.

Python. Highlights a dynamic kind framework and programmed memory the executives.

It bolsters different programming ideal models including object-arranged, basic, useful and Procedural and has an expansive and complete standard library.

Weka. Contains a gathering of representation devices and calculations for information examination and prescient

Demonstrating, together with graphical UIs for simple access to these capacities.

IV. Expected Outcomes

  • The System can monitor the activities on the road utilizing CCTV.
  • The System can calculate the speed of the vehicle
  • The System can capture the plate number of a vehicle.
  • The System can provide the information of the said vehicle.
  • The system alarms if there are violators.

V. Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Rodolfo Raga for the support and assisting them to accomplish this documentation.

VI. References

  1. Rapino, M. A., & Fields, A. K. (2013). Mega commuters in the US: time and distance in defining the long commute using the american community survey (No. Working Paper 2013-03).
  2. Verzosa, N., & Miles, R. (2016). Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 94, 216-226.
  3. Federal Bureau of labor Statistic: Police Salaries (2017) IT’S Berkeley: History of Traffic Signals LPAD Police Academy
  4. Alavaren, (2016) MMDA faces greatest challenge: managing 2.5-M vehicles in MM. https://news.mb.com.ph/2016/12/24/mmda-faces-greatest-challenge-managing-2-5-m-vehicles-in-mm/
  5. Romero, S., Guillen, D., Cordova, L., & Gatarin, G. (2014). Land-Based Transport Governance in the Philippines: Focus on Metro Manila. Inclusive Mobility Project, Quezon City, Ateneo School of Government, Ateneo de Manila University, 46.
  6. Etim, J., (2017) Transport and Communication: Definition and Importance/ Advantages http://www.jotscroll.com/forums/3/posts/190/transport-and-communication-definition-importance-transportation.html
  7. NARBONETA, C., & TEKNOMO, K. (2016). A Study of Metro Manila’s Public Transportation Sector: Implementing a Multimodal Public Transportation Route Planner. Asian Transport Studies, 4(2), 460-477.
  8. Gonzalez J., (2018) How many vehicles pass through EDSA every day? https://www.bworldonline.com/how-many-vehicles-pass-through-edsa-each-day/
  9. Rey A., (2018) IN CHARTS: How deadly are Metro Manila roads? https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/199896-metro-manila-road-crash-2017
  10. Sy K., (2017) IN NUMBERS: Road crash incidents in the Philippines https://www.rappler.com/move-ph/issues/road-safety/166151-road-crashes-philippines-awareness-safety
  11. Ramju, F., Sinde, R. S., & Kaijage, S. (2015). Development and Testing of Adaptive Vehicle Speed Monitoring System integrated with Alcoholic Detector for Public Buses: A case of Tanzania. Development, 127(7).
  12. Jeng, S. L., Chieng, W. H., & Lu, H. P. (2014). Estimating Speed Using a Side-Looking Single-Radar Vehicle Detector. IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, 15(2), 607-614.
  13. Boulet, B., & Bredin, F. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,626,418. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  14. Taghvaeeyan, S., & Rajamani, R. (2014). Portable roadside sensors for vehicle counting, classification, and speed measurement. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 15(1), 73-83.

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Speed Monitoring System Using CCTV: Analytical Essay. (2022, August 12). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 8, 2023, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/speed-monitoring-system-using-cctv-analytical-essay/
“Speed Monitoring System Using CCTV: Analytical Essay.” Edubirdie, 12 Aug. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/speed-monitoring-system-using-cctv-analytical-essay/
Speed Monitoring System Using CCTV: Analytical Essay. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/speed-monitoring-system-using-cctv-analytical-essay/> [Accessed 8 Feb. 2023].
Speed Monitoring System Using CCTV: Analytical Essay [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Aug 12 [cited 2023 Feb 8]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/speed-monitoring-system-using-cctv-analytical-essay/
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