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Vaccination Program As Important Step In The Control Of Diseases

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Rationale

Through research on vaccination programs besides HPV but into influenza virus, measles, and MMR (Measles, Mumps, and rebulla) it is apparent that vaccine programs are more than important in the control of diseases. Evidence of the importance of Human papillomavirus can be found in the article “HPV vaccination catch up program” it broadly discusses the link between cervical cancer and genital warts with the HPV 16 and 18 as well as HPV 6 and 11, but the article makes a concise conclusion on the resolution on woman not receiving their HPV vaccine resolution. The result being practical visits by young Woman to make sure they receive and catch up on their Human papillomavirus vaccination. This is important as eligible Woman me refer to their GP to claim their free HPV vaccination leading to a maximum coverage of cervical cancer. (Weisberg, Bateson, McCaffery & Skinner, 2019)

Therefore, with initial research, I’ve collected a broad research question has been developed as to Does human health (i.e. Human papillomavirus HPV) affect low-grade cervical cancer through HPV vaccination over time? This was based on the initial claim on vaccination program and the importance they present, more detail on the research question can be found below.

The Human papillomavirus vaccine program has become evident to show remarkable results with every year between 2007 and 2009 as researchers developed analysis on the link between cervical cancer and genital warts effecting more then 20,000 woman but since the vaccination program introduced in 2007 (‘Why the National HPV Vaccination Program was introduced’, 2019) shows great improvement in the reduction of cervical cancer and genital warts, the exponential results in reduction against HPV can be observed through the past 12 years since the vaccination was introduced evidence showing 2016 79 per cent of 15 year old girls and 73 per cent of 15 year old boys tested fully immune against the disease (‘Vaccination against human papillomavirus’, 2019)

Background

Human papillomavirus type 16-18 (HPV) (‘Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer’, 2019) is the leading cause of cervical cancer that shows to be extremely common generating incidence rates of 6.9 cases per 100,000 females in 2015, it is also estimated in 2019 that cervical screening incidence rate may increase to 7.2 per 100,000 females. (‘Cervical cancer statistics | Cervical cancer’, 2019) This is why Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs and further pushing them play a crucial role in national safety as it will reduce the number in cervical screening, we see today. Stages of cervical cancer consists of stage 1 where cancer is found only in tissue based in the female cervix, this isn’t so much of a risk compared to stage 2 to where like any other cancer begins the tumours begins to spread from the cervix toward the vagina and tissues surrounding the cervix. (Creative, 2019)

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Evidence

(Fairley et al., 2017) Discusses how there is undeniable evidence of a rapid decline in the presentation of genital warts and cervical cancer after the implementation of a national papillomavirus vaccination program for young Woman and through this they compare retrospective studies comparing the number of clients with genital warts attending Melbourne sexual health centre from 2004 to December 2007. Results of these studies show 36 055 new clients attended MSHC (Melbourne sexual health centre) between 2004 and 2008 genital warts were diagnosed in 3826 (10.6%; 95% CI 10.3 to 10.9.) The vaccination program also establishes itself to be one of the most critical vaccines programs to be taken as an essential to national health security it’s because of this that critical action must be taken, also modelling studies suggest that three doses of HPV vaccination program should aim for three doses of HPV coverage rates of 80% or greater to ensure maximum population protection.

Since the introduction of the HPV vaccination it has should tremendous prevalence of genital warts and cervical cancer since the introduction of a vaccination program in 2007 showing substantial reductions in the prevalence of vaccine targeted HPV genotypes (Patel, et al., 2018) and in specific disease outcomes linked to HPV in the general female population. (Herrero, et al., 2013) further supports this statement by conducting an experiment collecting a total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1∶1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. Then after a 4-year study visit they reengaged on their results to find 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE (vaccine efficacy) against oral infections. The vaccines efficiency proved to work quite well as after the 4-year period was over they identified that the HPV Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%) also there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18. All this suggests that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for the prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer.

Evidence of the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in table 1: Number of clients diagnosed with genital warts by year from 2004-2008 evidence showing a mass reduction of genital warts present from 2007 to when the vaccine was introduced to 2008 the next year, for example All Woman diagnoses shows 305 (10.4) diagnosed in 2007 only for that number to be reduced to 197 (6.2) patients diagnoses, thus the sample size overall only consists of 28,093 from both genders render it to be not so reliable but it does show relevant data to that of a sample size of a much larger population render it to be not so reliable but it does show relevant data to that of a sample size of a much larger population

Evaluation

Through gathered sources from established authors and publishers the trend present in these sources seem to conduct research with relatively small sample size for the test of reliability of the vaccination program, has a sample size of (28,093) making the data appear to be not exactly unreliable but not data that could be passed for use in a university paper.

Before vaccination and after but they also included the impact HGA and LGA had on the patient after vaccination, this gives precise accurate data to the positives but as well as the negatives to the vaccine and how it could possibly effect you.

Reference List

  1. Weisberg, E., Bateson, D., McCaffery, K., & Skinner, S. (2019). HPV vaccination catch up program. Retrieved 2 January 2009, from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Edith_Weisberg/publication/24198035_HPV_vaccination_catch_up_program_Utilisation_by_young_Australian_women/links/00463525c747fc9900000000.pdf
  2. Why the National HPV Vaccination Program was introduced? (2019). Retrieved 22 August 2019, from http://www.hpvvaccine.org.au/the-hpv-vaccine/why-was-the-program-introduced.aspx
  3. Vaccination against human papillomavirus. (2019). Retrieved 13 November 2018, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/67ca264a-7813-48a4-9aa7-c151e84f56f3/aihw-phe-236_HPV.pdf.aspx
  4. Cervical cancer statistics | Cervical cancer. (2019). Retrieved 23 May 2019, from https://cervical-cancer.canceraustralia.gov.au/statistics
  5. Creative, B. (2019). Cervical cancer – Cancer Council Western Australia. Retrieved 10 June 2019, from https://www.cancerwa.asn.au/resources/specific-cancers/gynaecological-cancers/cervical-cancer/
  6. Cervical cancer statistics | Cervical cancer. (2019). Retrieved 23 May 2019, from https://cervical-cancer.canceraustralia.gov.au/statistics
  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. (2019). Retrieved 24 January 2019, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/human-papillomavirus-(hpv)-and-cervical-cancer
  8. Fairley, C., Hocking, J., Gurrin, L., Chen, M., Donovan, B., & Bradshaw, C. (2017). Rapid decline in presentations of genital warts after the implementation of a national quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme for young women. Retrieved 15 December 2017, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/34d0/bf688523bb096f6ab069d4e8f74d8b59df14.pdf
  9. Patel, C., Brotherton, J. M., Pillsbury, A., Jayasinghe, S., Donovan, B., Macartney, K., & Marshall, H. (2018, October). The impact of 10 years of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Australia: what additional disease burden will a nonavalent vaccine prevent? Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194907/
  10. Bigman, C. A., Cappella, J. N., & Hornik, R. C. (2010, September 18). Effective or ineffective: attribute framing and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2993779/
  11. Brotherton, J., Fridman, M., May, C., Chappell, G., Saville, A., & Gertig, D. (2011). Early eff ect of the HPV vaccination programme on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. Retrieved 18 June 2011, from https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/44574546/Brotherton_J._M._et_al._Early_effect_of_20160409-27076-1e2tquo.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DEarly_effect_of_the_HPV_vaccination_prog.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A%2F20190825%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Date=20190825T091347Z&X-Amz-Expires=3600&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Signature=9fdc21e7922dea8a54634fb623a8e0af56a030803dcf567519e973c5661e5f1b

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Vaccination Program As Important Step In The Control Of Diseases. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 27, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/vaccination-program-as-important-step-in-the-control-of-diseases/
“Vaccination Program As Important Step In The Control Of Diseases.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/vaccination-program-as-important-step-in-the-control-of-diseases/
Vaccination Program As Important Step In The Control Of Diseases. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/vaccination-program-as-important-step-in-the-control-of-diseases/> [Accessed 27 Sept. 2022].
Vaccination Program As Important Step In The Control Of Diseases [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Sept 27]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/vaccination-program-as-important-step-in-the-control-of-diseases/
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