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Analytical Essay on Causes of World War 1

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The following research paper is on the topic of World War One Its causes and the results. This paper is based on authentic history and written on the basis of valid sources. And this research paper will talk about that how World War One took place, and what major factors played a role in World War One, which were the major states who fought the war. After the causes the results of the war has been discussed that how the war affect the different states and how organization such as the League of Nations was established. I hope that this research paper will serve as the master research paper on the topic of World War I and it would be really helpful for all those who want to know about WWI.

Many efforts were made by German Chancellor Bismarck to keep France isolated. A Triple Alliance was formed with Austria and Italy in 1882 A.D. with a view to achieving this end. During the same time, France was in precarious condition so she also started to search for allies. Germany was inclined towards Austria as a result of which bitterness also cropped up between Russia and Germany. Considering the whole situation, France formed an alliance with Russia in 1894 A.D. After observing the world situation England had to establish friendly relations with other states. It failed to establish good relations with Germany but it succeeded to form an alliance with Japan in 1902 A.D. and then with France in 1904 A.D. and finally with Russia in 1907 A.D. Hence England, France, and Russia formed a Triple Entente. This led to the division of Europe into two rival camps where hatred and rivalry were supreme. European powers had both commercial and colonial rivalry at that time. Efforts were made to increase influence over the East. One of the ambitious fellows was the German Emperor Kaiser William II. He was trying hard to make Germany the most powerful state. These all conditions prepared the ground for World War which broke out in 1914 A.D. It continued for four years i.e. 1914-18. All states play their role in this war. It was such a fierce war.

Main Causes of WW 1

Secret Alliance

The main cause of WWI was the secret alliance system. In 1914, Europe was divided into two armed camps. Germany had to enter into an alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1897. Italy joined the Germany-Austria Alliance in 1882 and The Triple Alliance came into existence. France and Russia were unable to stay together because of Bismarck's efforts. In 1890 when Bismarck was dismissed Germany left Russia alone and helpless which forced Russia to lean towards France. Not only the dismissal but many other factors brought the two states together. A Franco-Russian Alliance was formed in 1894. Things remained in this condition for some time. During the 19th century, England followed a policy of splendid isolation but now it started to feel all alone. It was afraid of the consequences it might face of being alone. To overcome this fear it tried to enter into an alliance with Germany but unfortunately, it failed to make an alliance. Then it succeeded to enter into an alliance with Japan in 1902. An Entente Cordiale was made between England and France in 1904. A Triple Entente came into existence in 1907 when England signed the Anglo-Russian Convention with Russia. Turkey was defeated by Germany which resulted in the division of Europe into two camps. The forest camp included France, Russia, England, and Japan. While the second camp consisted of Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany, and Turkey. There was enmity among the two camps other than jealousy. This mutual hatred was created by the system of secret alliance which ultimately resulted in the War of 1914. It all was because of the D-D system of alliance which was the curse of modern times.


Militarism was another cause of the world. This means the most dangerous mechanism of great standing armies and large navies along with an espionage system. The existence of a powerful class of navy officers and military headed by General Staff was also meant. At that time of crisis, these two people dominated the affairs of the country. Years are free years the military and the naval arms of the Great Powers began to grow. The main responsibilities of these armaments were defense and peace maintenance. They were supposed to produce a sense of security. Their actual result was that there was universal fear suspicion and hatred among the different nations. This is amply proved between Germany and England by the naval competition. A race of naval armament started between both countries. Two ships were built by England for every ship built by Germany. Only war was the solution to end such a race. Too much power was added into the land of the General Staff of every country by militarism. No conducive was found to maintain the peace.

Competitive Patriotism

Narrow nationalism or competitive patriotism was another cause of the war. The love of one’s country demanded the hatred of the other country. Love for France demanded hatred for Germany and vice versa. A bitterness between Serbia and Austria-Hungary what's created by intense nationalism. The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary Archduke Francis Ferdinand was murdered because of this.

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Economic Imperialism

International rivalries started because of economic imperialism. Every state tried to overtake the markets in every corner of the world. This resulted in bitterness and heart-burning. Bad blood among nations started because of the efforts to establish protectorates and spheres of influence in various parts of the world. Efforts were made By Germany to overtake the markets which were already in the hands of the English led to bitterness between the two states. Great Britain was not prepared to give up her colonies' protectorates' spheres of influence and markets to humor Germany. Tariff wars took place between various states which also resulted in worsening the relations. Germany was bent on getting all the markets at any cost war followed.

Poisoning of public opinion

Newspapers poison the public opinion which was another cause of the war. Newspapers misrepresented the situation in other countries by defaming nationalist fillings in all countries. The senseless attitude of the leasing newspaper was admitted frequently by ambassadors and cabinet ministers in their own countries. A regular newspaper war was created by making attacks and counter-attacks and exhilarating some points of dispute by the newspaper of both countries. According to Bismarck:

“Every country is held at some time to account for the windows broken by its press; the bill is presented some day or other, in the shape of hostile sentiments in the other countries”.

Character of William-II

The emperor of Germany, William ii, played an important role in the cause of war, he was ambitious, very arrogant, and haughty. His main goal was to see Germany be the strongest power in the world. He had a strong belief in the policy of “world power on downfall”. He was not ready at all to make any compromises in International affairs. He desired to have his own way in every case. His opinion about the English character was very poor, his thought was that English men would not fight against him rather they would agree upon all his demands. He was sadly mistaken in his estimate of the English nation. The British wanted to maintain peace but it was not a sign of her cowardice or weakness. It was a misunderstanding of British character by William ii that was responsible for his attitude towards England and that mistake proved to be his undoing.

The desire of French people to get back Alsace-Lorraine

The desire of the people of France to get back Alsace-Lorraine was another cause of the war which was snatched away from them by Germany in 1871. The Government of the Third Republic in France tried very hard to keep the spirit of revenge and the hope for the restoration of the two provinces alive. The statue of Strasbourg in the Place de la Concorde in Paris reminded the Frenchmen of their lost territories. A feeling of revenge among the young men was inculcated by the songs of Paul Deroulede. There was also an economic motive for getting back Alsace-Lorraine. The Frenchmen must have burned their blood when they found the industrial prosperity of Germany was due to the iron mines of Lorraine in the hands of their enemies. The iron and steel magnates of France felt that they could not do without the iron mines of Lorraine. Germany's interference in the affairs of Morocco added to the bitterness and hatred between the French and Germany.

Near-Eastern problem

Near-Eastern problem was another cause of war. The situation on the balcony was complicated by many factors. The misrule of Turkey resulted in discontentment .there was a clash between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia for the control of Macedonia which has a mixed occasion of the Bosnian crisis of 1908 -9 and could be expected to do the same in the future. The forces of Pan-Slavism were another factor complicating the situation. The Astro– German Drang mach Osten or “Urge towards the East” worsen the matter.

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Analytical Essay on Causes of World War 1. (2023, September 25). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 5, 2024, from
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