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Corona Virus (COVID-19): Introduction To Biochemical Engineering

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What Is Corona Viruse (COVID-19)

Corona viruses are a wide group of viruses that in animals and humans may cause disease. Corona viruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans ranging from mild colds to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Since being first identified in southern China in 2002, 26 countries continued to be affected, resulting in more than 8,000 cases and 774 deaths. The Coronavirus which was recently discovered triggers the Corvid-19 virus.

COVID-19 is a disease which can cause an infection of the respiratory tract. The upper respiratory tract (sinuses, nose and throat) or lower respiratory tract (windpipe and lungs) can be affected. The infection is spread from one person to others via droplets produced during coughing or sneezing from the respiratory system of infected people,it considered to be more contagious if people become symptomatic, The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is usually between two and 14 days, of an average of five days.

History Of Corona Viruse (COVID-19)

The disease seems to have arisen from a seafood market in Wuhan, China :where wild animals, including marmots, birds, rabbits, bats, and snakes, are illegally traded. Coronaviruses are known to move from animals to humans, and it is believed that it was transmitted by the first people diagnosed with the disease through contact with animals

The first human cases of Covid-19 disease were discovered, in December 2019. The injury was for a woman selling shrimp in the fish market in Wuhan. She was infected on December 11, 2019, with fever for an unknown reason. It later became clear, according to press sources, that it was the first confirmed case of ‘Covid-19’ infection in the Wuhan Fish and Marine Products Market.

Since the first reports of (COVID-19) in Wuhan, there has been considerable discussion on the origin of the causative virus. Infections with (COVID-19) are now widespread, On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization rated it the global pandemic.

In light of the World Health Organization predicts that there will be a vaccine in the late year 2020, the number of people who have been infected with Corona virus around the world continues to increase with a total of (1 million and 981 thousand and 239 cases), while the number of recovery cases from «Covid-19» to a total of (486,622) Case), and the number of deaths due to it increased to (126 thousand and 761 cases) until April 15, 2020.

Coronavirus Origins (COVID-19)

Chinese-US blame game on the sources of the coronavirus pandemic has fuelled a host of hypotheses, some more plausible than others.

The most common theory at the outset of the December outbreak was that the virus emerged from a so-called wet market in Wuhan, the Chinese city where the first COVID-19 cases were registered.

But the role of public-health laboratories in Wuhan came under increasing scrutiny as the virus spread globally. Long-running experiments with bat viruses in two laboratories in Wuhan helped scientists rapidly recognize the coronavirus as most likely to have originated from the nocturnal rodent, but the same laboratories have also fuelled fears regarding biosafety.

In the early weeks of the outbreak, the practice of collecting viruses from bats first burst into public view when Shi Zhengli, a renowned scientist with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, refuted a swirl of online allegations, both at home and abroad, that coronavirus may have leaked from her institute, where a laboratory accredited as BSL-4, the highest standard for the handling of dangerous pathogens, opened three years ago.

Director-General of the World Health Organization Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesu called this speculation part of a ‘infodemic’ of fake news about coronavirus, while other public health officials said they belonged to the slew of conspiracy theories claiming the virus had been engineered .

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Some scientists, both inside and outside China, claim that an accidental leak remains a possibility-insofar as there is no proof to disprove it, But All scientists who studied the virus genome agree that it would be impossible.

Richard Ebright, a molecular biologist and director at the Waksman Institute of Microbiology at Rutgers University in New Jersey, US. said ‘There is nothing ‘fake’ about lab accidents,’ and ‘There is nothing ‘conspiratorial’ about lab accidents.’

It Is Genetic Makeup

Everyone still wonders: Where did the ‘COVID-19 emerging’ virus come from? Some researchers have believed that the virus is spread by frequent infections that jump from animals to humans, and then pass from person to person. However, other researchers have assumed that the virus probably only jumped once from animal to human and has spread to humans since mid-November 2019

Emma Hudcroft, a molecular epidemiologist at the University of Basel in Switzerland, adds: ‘We see absolutely no evidence that the virus was designed or released on purpose.’ It was not part of the Andersen Group, but is a member of a team of scientists at “Nextstrain.org” that tracks small genetic changes in the coronavirus to learn more about how it is spread around the world. Emma adds that some extensions of the genetic material of the virus resemble HIV, but this is something that stems from those viruses that share with their ancestors during evolution.

The researchers compared the emerging coronavirus with other newly found coronaviruses in nature, including bats and pangolin, and concluded that the ‘Covid 19’ virus could be a mixture of bat and pangolin viruses. Viruses, especially RNA viruses, often exchange like coronaviruses and genes in nature. The finding of genes related to the pangolin viruses was particularly reassuring, because the genetic makeup of these viruses was unknown until after the discovery of ‘Covid 19’.

He adds that sugars binding sites were further evidence that the virus is normal, as sugars create a ‘mucin shield’, which protects the virus from attack by the immune system, but when viruses are transplanted into laboratory tissues, the virus grows without the presence of immune systems. This makes it unlikely that such adaptation will arise from virus growth in the laboratory. Emma adds that the similarity of the ‘Covid 19’ virus to the bat and pangolin viruses is one of the best evidence that the virus is natural. ‘This was just another animal extension to humans.’

How It Has Affected Mankind

Covid 19 is one of the coronaviruses that causes respiratory diseases in humans, ranging from colds to pneumonia. The incubation period varies between coronaviruses, for example, the virus that causes SARS requires 11 days, while the incubation period for Covid 19 is between two to 14 days. Exposure to the virus to begin infecting the cells lining the throat and lungs to store and proliferate Covid 19 viruses, according to USA Today. The body contains Covid 19 viruses inside its cells without showing symptoms of the disease or any apparent effects, and the infected person may transmit Covid 19 virus to others during the incubation period.

The severity of symptoms increases after a person becomes ill, according to the strength of the body’s immunity, such as a rise in temperature or a decrease in it very clearly, and a feeling of fainting and shortness of breath. The kidneys do their work, and the chance of developing bowel lining increases. Corona Covid 19 virus causes other health problems such as severe hypotension, 4.7% of vital organs, diarrhea and indigestion.

Severe corona disease causes pneumonia, as the vesicles begin to fill with water, causing shortness of breath and difficulty, so patients need 14% in this case to have a ventilator so they can breathe, and it is worth noting if the patient does not receive enough oxygen that can cause severe symptoms Pneumonia leads to failure of vital organs after that death.

HOW TO PREVENT ITS SPREAD

Because of the rapid infection caused by coronavirus covid19. All they can do is to contain the epidemic, reduce the infection, disease and deaths caused by it. The best way to limit the spread of the virus is by adopting prevention methods by diagnosing patients and carriers, quarantine, prohibition of gathering, movement restricting and last using antiseptics and sterilizers. If implemented in a timely manner and effectively imposed, it is possible to reduce the risk of infection and thus the number of patients and victims.

Movement Restrictions

One of the first steps most countries have taken is to impose restrictions on flights coming from affected areas. This step succeeded in reducing the spread of the virus in the early stages of the disease outbreak by almost 80 percent, although this did not stop its spread at the epicenter of the original virus outbreak in Wuhan, China. While it was more effective when it took other precautions such as prohibition of assembly and maintaining hygiene. Although the number of patients is an important factor, it can also be deceptive. Due to the passage of time from the moment the patient is infected until the onset of symptoms he has, so it is difficult to know how many patients exactly are in each moment.

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Corona Virus (COVID-19): Introduction To Biochemical Engineering. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 24, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/corona-virus-covid-19-introduction-to-biochemical-engineering/
“Corona Virus (COVID-19): Introduction To Biochemical Engineering.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/corona-virus-covid-19-introduction-to-biochemical-engineering/
Corona Virus (COVID-19): Introduction To Biochemical Engineering. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/corona-virus-covid-19-introduction-to-biochemical-engineering/> [Accessed 24 Sept. 2022].
Corona Virus (COVID-19): Introduction To Biochemical Engineering [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Sept 24]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/corona-virus-covid-19-introduction-to-biochemical-engineering/
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