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Detection Of Bacteria Using The pH Level Of Water And Arduino Uno

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Abstract

With people suffering from the lack of clean water or people that are not sure if the water they are drinking is indeed safe, therefore many people catch illnesses caused by unsafe water. By having enough knowledge about the quality of water they drink, they can avoid these situations. The device aims to detect the pH levels of water to determine if it is safe to drink. This study used the ADDIE Developmental Design to allow further enhancements and developments to the device. The device were tested and evaluated by six IT experts in the following categories: Functionality, Efficiency, Portability, Usability and Reliability. The overall score in each category, which are respectively: 3.05, 3.25, 3.59, 2.94, and 3.39 indicate that the evaluators agree that this device is functional, efficient, portable, usable, and reliable in testing the pH levels of water.

Introduction

Having safe water around the house is a privilege not a lot of us can have. There are many common water borne illnesses that are being spread to humans due to the lack of access to basic sanitation and improperly treated water that could possible lead to extreme health effects if not treated. And with many people being forced to drink unfiltered or unsafe water, where excess amounts of dangerous pathogens exists, due to their circumstances.

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) is a microscopic organism which can cause diseases and can only live within a range of conditions with respect to the temperature, pH level, dissolved gases, etc. of its environment. They are classified as prokaryotes which are single celled organisms that can live in the soil, the ocean or inside the human body. What makes the water dangerous for humans to drink is the presence of disease-inducing bacteria, viruses or parasites.

Knowing the quality of the water that you are drinking is important as it could determine if the water you are drinking is safe or not. One of the ways to know the quality is by measuring the pH level. pH is a measure of free hydroxyl or hydrogen ion in water. Water that has more free hydroxyl is considered basic, while water that has more free hydrogen is considered acidic. It is measured by ‘logarithmic units’, each number represents ten-fold of change in terms of basicness/acidity.

Bacteria change the environment by excreting metabolites and consuming resources. Then the altered environment influences the survival and growth of bacteria. Therefore, the bacteria’s metabolism changes the environment and react to those changes. Pathogenic strains such as Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) or Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) can thrive at an acidic pH value of 5.0-6.0. On the other end of the spectrum, vibrio cholerae, the pathogenic agent of the common water borne disease Cholera, can thrive at a pH value of 11.0. So identifying the pH value of your nearest water source can be a huge help in knowing whether you can or cannot drink the water.

As of the current, according to Water.org “Out of 105 million Filipinos, nearly 7 million rely on unimproved, unsafe, and unsustainable water and more than 24 million lacks access to improved sanitation.”

The researchers aim to create a device that can detect these bacteria using the pH levels combined with the use of modern technology as the confirmation on whether or not there are living organisms thriving in water. The researchers also aim for this device to be as effective, accurate and cost-efficient as possible.

The researchers aim to adress the following problems: I. Is the device effective in terms of:

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  • a) Accuracy?
  • b) Effiency?
  • c) Usability?
  • d) Comprehensability?
  • e) Portability?

Significance of the Study

The study will be undertaken to emphasize how contaminated water should not be taken and to detect the presence of bacteria in water. Benefiting the study is the various sectors that follow:

People living near rivers and other bodies of water: The study will help those who are living near bodies of water to check if their nearest water source is contaminated by harmful pathogens

The curious people: The research shall answer the curiosity of some people about how the device can detect pathogens with the use of pH levels in the water

The future researchers: The research will give way to those who want to innovate the device that this study will be using. Any improvements about the device can help pave the way to make a better, more effective way on detecting various types of microorganisms.

The community: The device helps to prevent unnecessary harm for those who are not sure if their water source is clean or is infested by numerous amounts of pathogens

People living in rural areas: This device will be beneficial for those who are living in rural areas, especially to those with no guaranteed safe water source at their homes.

Scope and Limitations

This study focuses on the development of the device that could be a potential mitigation for the people that doesn’t have access to the current technology to detect and identify if the water is contaminated or not.The device can be further used in the future by people, specifically in rural places. This study will prioritize the accuracy and efficiency of the device for future improvements and utilization.

The device is only a prototype, hence it could only showcase limited factor of water that affects its purity and sanitation. The factor that were assessed in this case is the pH level of water, since pH can be affected by bacteria in the water, and is also an important indicator if the water is changing chemically. The device will also have complication in terms of its durability, given that the device is still under development.

CONCLUSION

After conducting the study, the researchers conclude that the device is capable of detecting the presence of bacteria in the water. It also shows that the device obtained accurate values in terms of its input and output. It is also easy to use, portable, and can be easily understood.

REFERENCES

  1. OpenStax. (n.d.). Microbiology. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/microbiology/chapter/the-effects-of-ph-on-microbial-growth/
  2. Ratzke, C., & Gore, J. (2018, March 14). Modifying and reacting to the environmental pH can drive bacterial interactions. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868856/
  3. Cirino, E. (2019, March 29). pH of Drinking Water: Acceptable Levels and More. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/ph-of-drinking-water
  4. “Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites in Drinking Water.” Minnesota Department of Health, Accessed November 20, 2019 https://www.health.state.mn.us/communities/environment/water/contaminants/bacteria.html
  5. “Philippines Water Crisis – Water In The Philippines 2019.” Water.org. Accessed November 22, 2019 https://water.org/our-impact/philippines/.
  6. “What Are Bacteria?” LiveScience. Purch. Accessed November 22,2019 https://www.livescience.com/51641-bacteria.html.
  7. Zhang, L., Su, F., Kong, X., Lee, F., Day, K., Gao, W., … Meldrum, D. R. (2016, May 3). Ratiometric fluorescent pH-sensitive polymers for high-throughput monitoring of extracellular pH. Retrieved from https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2016/ra/c6ra06468j#!divAbstract
  8. Arman, K., et al. “The Role of Bacteria in PH Increase of Nettle Water.” Plant and Soil, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1 Jan. 1979, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02181933.
  9. Oram, Brian. “Mr. Brian Oram, PG.” Water Research Center – PH of Drinking Water Water Balance, water-research.net/index.php/water-treatment/tools/the-ph-of-water.
  10. “PH of Water.” Environmental Measurement Systems, www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-quality/ph/.
  11. Properties of Microbes, www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/CellBio/Growth/MGpH.html.
  12. Wahyuni, Eva Ari. “The Influence of PH Characteristics on the Occurance of Coliform Bacteria in Madura Strait.” Procedia Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, 31 Jan. 2015, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029615000213.

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Detection Of Bacteria Using The pH Level Of Water And Arduino Uno. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 4, 2023, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/detection-of-bacteria-using-the-ph-level-of-water-and-arduino-uno/
“Detection Of Bacteria Using The pH Level Of Water And Arduino Uno.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/detection-of-bacteria-using-the-ph-level-of-water-and-arduino-uno/
Detection Of Bacteria Using The pH Level Of Water And Arduino Uno. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/detection-of-bacteria-using-the-ph-level-of-water-and-arduino-uno/> [Accessed 4 Feb. 2023].
Detection Of Bacteria Using The pH Level Of Water And Arduino Uno [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2023 Feb 4]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/detection-of-bacteria-using-the-ph-level-of-water-and-arduino-uno/
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