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Enzyme Essays

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Enzyme biotechnology and industrial enzyme production exist in our daily life and. In many cases, commercial processes first utilize naturally occurring enzymes. However, this does not mean that the enzyme can be utilized as effective as possible. With time, research and improved protein engineering methods, many enzymes have been genetically engineered to be more effective at the desired temperature, pH or other manufacturing conditions that normally inhibit enzyme activity (eg, irritating chemicals), making them even more suitable and effective for...
2 Pages 718 Words
Introduction Energy, the ability to do work, plays a key role in all living organisms by providing its cells with fuel to function properly. Because of this, metabolism also plays a key role in all living organisms. Metabolism measures all of an organism’s chemical reactions. One of the main functions of metabolism is to organize the energy of the organism which is done through metabolic pathways. The metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule which is then altered down its...
5 Pages 2301 Words
Bromelain was first identified in 1891. Vicente Marcano, a Venezuelan chemist, isolated it by taking pineapple and fermenting it. Only one year later, in 1892, more research was conducted on the enzyme by Russell Henry Chittenden, Elliott P. Joslin, and Frank Sherman Meara. They named the enzyme Bromelain. They discovered that Bromelain is good at dividing proteins such as the collagen in steak, as well as in the tongue. Bromelain is a protein-absorbing enzyme that helps to hydrolyze protein into...
1 Page 629 Words
Abstract Garbage enzyme as additive in synthetic grey water treatment. Fermentation products are kitchen waste, water, Brown sugar. Reduce the pollutant in grey water, used for various household purposes. Garbage enzymes also have antimicrobial activity. It is an eco-friendly biotechnology approach to waste water treatment. Introduction Industrialization revolutionized the world as it brought along with technological leap. Due to change, it is a host of environmental problems. More impact on the use of newer biotechnological approaches termed as Green biotechnology....
2 Pages 828 Words
The effects of changing temperature and pH conditions on the activity of the β-galactosidase enzyme and its affinity for ONPG were studied. A standard curve was developed as a control, and was used to obtain the assays for the 6 different reaction rates studied, corresponding with the 4 temperatures and 4 pH’s. The reaction results were measured for its absorbance, which was converted into mM of ONP present using the standard curve. Using conversions in a form similar to stoichiometry,...
3 Pages 1560 Words
Enzyme Technology Technology used to preserve various forms of food such as fruit and vegetables can often rely heavily on natural resources such as the utilization of fossil fuels for energy consumption. Enzymes can be used as an alternative method to the pre-established technologies many of which are unsustainable in the food processing industry. Enzyme technology is an efficient method for food preservation as the enzymes can accelerate reactions such as the breakdown of chitin in cell walls of pathogens,...
3 Pages 1402 Words
Abstract This review article to determine the activation of telomerase enzyme on neuron cells and how it is used as therapeutic target to treat aging of neurons on disease condition, animal models experimental and case studies such as activate telomerase enzyme to preserve telomere gene length, preventing telomere shortening on age related disease especially in aging of neurons which impacting on age related neurodegenerative disorders. Mice brain astrocytes models were used with inducing telomerase enzyme (TERT) expression with hypoxia and...
7 Pages 3046 Words
Abstract Resources in Indonesia are very large, especially sources that are food. One of the abundant resources in Indonesia is its fisheries resources, therefore the food must be processed in such a way as to have good quality and quality. Good quality and quality can help increase economic value and nutritional value in the community. There are many ways that are used to process food resources in the fisheries sector. One of the methods used is biotechnology. Methods of using...
3 Pages 1551 Words
Abstract The purpose of the investigation was to examine the correlation of enzyme production in response to the evolutionary impact of AMY1 gene copy numbers in individuals. Based upon research obtained in previous studies, there was an assumed positive correlation between gene copy numbers and the production of salivary amylase protein levels in mg/mL. Variances in copy numbers can be explained by individual ancestral history. This is primarily dependent on the specific geographical locations where gene copy numbers within a...
6 Pages 2639 Words
Abstract Digestive enzymes play a very important role in providing the energy and proteins that the body needs to survive from the food that is ingested. One important digestive enzyme is pepsin. This enzyme survives the acidic pH of the stomach and is not denatured by it as some enzymes might. Pepsin has a precursor, pepsinogen, which is the inactive form of pepsin. Pepsinogen is structurally different than pepsin because it has an extra peptide chain. Pepsin is in charge...
4 Pages 1883 Words
Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to determine the optimal temperature for both bacterial enzyme amylase, known as Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), and fungal enzyme amylase, known as Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae). During this experiment, both enzymes were exposed to 4 different temperatures (0 ᵒC, 25 ᵒC, 55 ᵒC, and 85 ᵒC) for specific time intervals. The time intervals were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes each. Because we are conduction an experiment, the 0 ᵒC was...
3 Pages 1545 Words
Enzymes are proteins that help with digestion and metabolism. Their function is to speed up certain reactions within cells. In this case, enzymes were part of a reaction with iodine. A total of eight test tubes were used; four for bacterial amylase and the other four for fungal amylase. A spot place was used to see the reaction between the amylase and iodine. Four out of the eight test tubes were labeled with the letter ‘S’ for starch solution. Each...
4 Pages 1617 Words
Introduction Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts which accelerate many biological chemical reactions (Funk and Wagnalls 2018), making them an important staple in linking metabolic networks (Chiu et al. 2006) as well as many biological processes. Thus, it is important to have a fundamental understanding of enzymes and their reactions with substrates, including measuring their activity based on the factors of inhibition and temperature. In this experiment, the enzyme catechol oxidase catalyzes the substrates of catechol and oxygen to...
3 Pages 1318 Words
Abstract The experiment that was performed over two weeks served to examine how the amount of enzyme, amount of substrate, presence of inhibitor, or the magnitude of temperature changes the reaction rate between the enzyme and substrate present. The enzyme used in these experiments was peroxidase which was extracted from turnips and placed in flasks to be transferred into tubes and would later be mixed with the substrate to start the reaction. The substrate used in the experiment was hydrogen...
4 Pages 1634 Words
Introduction Starch is a common polysaccharide, made up of glucose monomers (Serrano and Peralta, 2015). Pancreatic amylase is often the enzyme involved in the digestion of starch (Chegeni et al., 2018). Amylase is also an exoenzyme and facilitates the digestion of dietary carbohydrates (Nifty et al., 2019). Amylase causes conformational changes in starch, resulting in a reduced viscosity, and increased solubility (Vafina et al., 2018) Amylase is often used in the food industry, in the health field, as well as...
2 Pages 778 Words
With the rising importance of enzyme-assisted extraction of essential oil from plant and microbial sources, researchers are now interested in studying the effect of combination of enzyme-assisted extraction and other non-conventional extraction techniques on the extraction of essential oil. Non-conventional techniques such as three-phase partitioning, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction (Gupta et al. 2012). The combination of enzyme-assisted extraction and these techniques can be considered economical as well as an efficient method to extract essential oil. Enzyme-Assisted...
4 Pages 1961 Words
Currently, the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic has led to an unprecedented shortage of disinfectants, hand sanitizers and detergents, especially in the United States and Europe. Hand sanitizer is regarded as an auxiliary product of hand soap and liquid. Since no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been developed to prevent or treat the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, the importance of using hand sanitizer for personal hygiene and disinfection has reached a new height. To prevent the spread of coronavirus and control the number of...
2 Pages 762 Words
Rationale The research question that was decided was formed from the claim 'Crispr can produce individuals who are free of genetic disease.' An article posted on the Morning Edition mentioned that a New York scientist conducted gene-editing experiments which, although raised some ethical concerns, could someday prevent many inherited diseases. Before the final question could be developed, numerous elements from the claim needed to be considered and broken down into key questions. Examples of these include ‘What is CRISPR?’, ‘What...
2 Pages 1105 Words
Biology needs a metabolic reaction at all times. This is because a special type of catalyst-enzymes are widely present in the body. It can effectively reduce the activation energy of each molecule participating in a chemical reaction, enabling the organism to complete various chemical reactions quickly and efficiently. Plant photosynthesis, human digestion and absorption of food all occur and complete with the direct participation of enzymes. Enzyme is a kind of protein with special function produced by living cells, and...
2 Pages 773 Words
In the past 20 years, various enzyme preparations have been used in meat processing. The common points of enzyme preparations are: strong professionalism and can be carried out under mild conditions; low cost and energy consumption in processing; significant changes in meat properties and meat quality improvement; high production efficiency; No harmful ingredients remain in the meat. The usage of nine enzyme preparations for meat processing is introduced for reference. Transglutaminase Currently there is more production in Europe and the...
2 Pages 744 Words
A biological enzyme is a non-toxic, harmless, and environmentally friendly biological catalyst. Biological enzymes have great advantages in the textile printing and dyeing industry. To speed up the development of various biological enzyme preparations, solve some problems in textile printing and dyeing, reduce as much as possible the decline in fiber strength and low efficiency of enzyme preparations, develop high temperature resistant enzyme species, expand the scope of protease applications, and accelerate China's textile printing and dyeing Industrial technological transformation....
1 Page 609 Words
Application in dairy products Lactose is a disaccharide found in mammalian milk and has low sweetness and solubility. Dietary lactose can improve the body's absorption of Ca, P, Mg and other essential trace elements, but it cannot be directly absorbed in the small intestine, and must be hydrolyzed by the small intestine to be digested and absorbed by the body. β-D-galactosidase, also known as lactase, is a odorless, light brown and non-toxic biological enzyme preparation after dissolution. The enzyme can...
1 Page 598 Words
With the rapid development of the dairy cattle breeding industry and the dairy industry, the output of raw milk and dairy products has increased significantly, the variety of dairy products has been greatly enriched, and the quality has also made a qualitative leap. High and new technologies such as gene technology, enzyme technology, microbial technology, high-pressure technology, and cold sterilization technology are also increasingly used in dairy production. Enzymes are proteins with catalytic functions produced by living cells, and they...
2 Pages 951 Words
Enzyme is a protein molecule that takes on a particular shape which enables them to speed up biochemical reactions within the organisms, therefore behaving as a catalyst. It can also be used in industrial and medical contexts. Bread making, cheese making and beer brewing all depend on the activity on enzymes, and enzymes can be inhibited if their environment is too acidic or too basic. The rate of action of an enzyme is highly dependent on many key variables, including...
2 Pages 778 Words
Oceans provide 90 percent of living space on our planet Earth by volume and about 95 percent of this enormous area is still unseen by humans. (1) This huge area holds infinite opportunities with a massive diversity of organisms. The plants, animals and all the other microorganisms, even the tiniest ones that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean or brackish water or coastal estuaries are altogether known as marine life. (2) As the conditions of living...
2 Pages 713 Words
Enzymes are key protein molecules in living systems. Once synthesized, they are not usually converted to other kinds of molecules, and so are the substances taken in as fuel for digestive and respiratory processes (such as sugar, fat, and molecular oxygen). This is because enzymes are catalysts, which means they can participate in chemical reactions without themselves being changed, just like the moderator of a public debate who ideally moves the participants and the audience toward a conclusion by dictating...
2 Pages 904 Words
RATIONALE Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells. Catalysts increase the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or permanently altered themselves by lowering their activation energy (Christensen, 2018). Every enzyme has a region called active site, where enzymes are binds to a substrate to create another enzyme and carries a reaction. Enzyme is important because it’s a metabolic pathway in the body like respiration, building muscle, destroying toxins, and breaking down food particles during...
3 Pages 1237 Words
Introduction The browning of an apple or other foods like potatoes and bananas are something that we have all seen in our everyday life. This phenomenon is caused by the interaction of enzymes, that are naturally found in plants, with oxygen. These enzymes oxidize to create the brown colour that we are familiar with. Enzymes are natural catalysts that help to speed up certain chemical reactions within plants and animals (DiGiuseppe, Frazer, LeDrew, Vavitsas, &White-McMahon, 2012, p. 50). Enzymes bind...
2 Pages 916 Words
Introduction In our society, using enzymes or microorganisms in food preparation has become widely known. As new technology has been developed, new application fields have been developed and pioneered. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and the other enzymes are highly used for improving the taste and texture and eventually obtain enormous economic benefits to industries. With the advancement of technology, the use of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to produce new enzymes suitable for specific food processing conditions....
5 Pages 2073 Words
Introduction Protein Kinase A kinase is an enzyme serves as catalyst which facilitates the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. This process is known as phosphorylation, where the substrate gains a phosphate group (and become phosphorylated substrate) and the high-energy ATP molecule donates a phosphate group (and become as ADP). On the other hand, the de-phosphorylation process is when the phosphorylated substrate donates a phosphate group back to the ADP which become as ATP accordingly....
3 Pages 1455 Words
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