Enzyme biotechnology and industrial enzyme production exist in our daily life and. In many cases, commercial processes first utilize naturally occurring enzymes. However, this does not mean that the enzyme can be utilized as effective as possible. With time, research and improved protein engineering methods, many enzymes have been genetically engineered to be more effective at the desired temperature, pH or other manufacturing conditions that normally inhibit enzyme activity (eg, irritating chemicals), making them even more suitable and effective for industrial or domestic applications.
Food and Drinks
This is a domestic application of enzyme technology that most people are already familiar with. Historically, humans have used enzymes for centuries to produce food in early biotechnology practices, rather than really understanding it. For example, wine, beer, vinegar and cheese can be made due to the enzymes in the yeast and the bacteria used.
Biotechnology makes it possible to isolate and characterize specific enzymes responsible for these processes. It allows the development of specialized strains for specific uses to improve the flavor and quality of each product. Enzymes can also be used to make the process cheaper and more predictable, so every batch of brewing ensures a high quality product. Other enzymes reduce the time required for aging, help to clarify or stabilize the product or help control alcohol and sugar levels.
Enzymes have also been used to turn starch into sugar for many years. Corn and wheat syrup are used as sweeteners throughout the food industry. Using enzyme technology, the production of these sweeteners can be cheaper than using cane sugar. Each step uses biotechnology methods to develop and enhance enzymes
Enzymes are known to aid in food processing in a variety of applications, such as making cheese, vinegar and wine; fermented bread; brewing beer, and the like. In these processes, enzymes help save energy and resources and increase overall efficiency. In many cases, the use of enzymes has been shown to reduce the volume and toxicity of by-products and effluents.
Baking enzymes have become an important part of the industry. These enzymes are revolutionizing the baking industry by extending the shelf life of the bread, improving dough handling, providing anti-aging properties, and improving the manufacturer’s control over bread texture, color, taste, moisture and volume.
Health and Nutrition
There are four basic types of enzymes: proteases for protein digestion, amylases for carbohydrate digestion, lipases for fat digestion, and cellulases for fiber digestion. In addition, metabolic enzymes are specifically designed to treat the exact needs of each organ, bone and blood, and every cell in the body. These enzymes control the growth of all body cells and maintain all tissues. Enzymes are responsible for digestion, absorption, metabolism, and energy. The vitality of every cell in our body depends on the enzyme, which helps us consume 45 basic nutrients. A proper amount of supplemental enzymes ensures good nutrition. Without enzymes, even the most balanced diet is worthless because food cannot be digested and used by the body.
Bioethanol is a biofuel that has been widely recognized by the public. When you add fuel to your vehicle, you may already be using bioethanol. Bioethanol can be produced from starch plant material using enzymes that are efficiently converted. At present, corn is a widely used source of starch, but interest in bioethanol is increasing as corn prices rise and corn as a food supply is threatened. Other plants including wheat, bamboo or other gramineous plants may be a candidate starch source for bioethanol production.
In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, it is questionable whether the cost of manufacturing bioethanol is lower than the consumption of fossil fuels. Bioethanol production (planting, transportation, manufacturing) still requires a large amount of non-renewable resources. Technological research and the operation of enzymes make this process more efficient, requiring less plant material or consuming less fossil fuels, and efforts are being made to improve this biotechnology field.
Biomss is the most abundant resource that has never been effectively utilized. Enzymes can be used to degrade biomass and nutrients as well as industrial raw materials. We have developed industrial enzymes to help with biomass degradation and repair. Lignin, including some laccases and peroxidases, loosens the strong cross-linking between biomass fibers, making them easier to process later. Cellulase and hemicellulase further hydrolyze side chains and long fibers into short fibers which are then converted into valuable materials after several quick steps.