Essay on Computer Viruses and How to Protect Against Them

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System security is an imperative part of data innovation and can be ordered into four noteworthy areas including authentication, integrity control, secrecy, nonrepudiation. It is an idea of verifying and securing system and information transmission from clients who can utilize the data for hacking purposes. It focused around verifying systems including both public and private exchanges and correspondences among organizations, government foundations, and people. Network security has turned into a major segment in the company structure because the data kept up go through the enormous number of systems and gadgets, for example, PCs and switches and turns out to be entirely powerless against dangers and assaults.

IT security and prevention are an important subject to taking in review at the current situation. Many biggest organizations are working at the international stage and they have a huge amount of data of various factor and it is very complicated for an organization to secure their system and network. Today many organizations have their software and network to operate from various geographical area and application. So far, the organization must set up a defense mechanism for network, system, and application from an attacker, threats, viruses, spyware and hackers. To prevent these viruses, trojan, and malicious attack, many organizations require to have some antivirus or some security packages. There are thousands of viruses, spies are improving and store as coding or on the Internet. So, antivirus is the one kind of software and class of program that detects these malicious viruses and removes them from the system. This paper highlights about viruses, its types and detection tools, system scan and network security, the structure of antivirus, applications and antiviruses software.

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The basic definition of a virus is a piece of coding, computer programming which are executed copy by reproducing itself and infects the system data and computer environment. Computer viruses are made by humans and it is run without your authentication in your computer.

A virus is one kind of program which can imitate with next to or no client mediation, and the repeated program(s) can reproduce further. Malware, for short, are programs deliberately intended to play out some unapproved - regularly unsafe or bothersome act. Malware is a nonexclusive term and is utilized to describe numerous sorts of malicious software, for example, viruses and worms. This is a common phenomenon of a computer’s virus which is divided into three subroutines. The first subroutine is infecting executable which is responsible for accessible executable records and tainting them by duplicating its code into them. The second subroutine is do-harm, weather called the payload of the virus, which is responsible for sending the harmful piece of the virus packages. The last subroutine is trigger-pulled checks if the ideal conditions are met in the state of sending its payload.

Four Section of Virus

  1. Mark: it can provide a defense mechanism against antivirus.
  2. Infection: this mechanism helps the virus to spread into many files in the hard drive or floppy disk.
  3. Trigger: it is preparing a condition for sending the payload.
  4. Payloads: it is conceivable harm to damage the computer.

Type of Viruses

  • Directory virus: directory viruses are infected files or floppy disk by changes their actual location of the path and converted an executable code such as.EXE or.COM file. These directory viruses stay in the floppy or hard drive which are infected to other program or files. It is the memory residence. For example, sometime companion viruses are creating a PNG.COM file and it is run first.
  • Master booted record: it is fundamentally same as with the booted sector virus. Master boot virus infects to the MBR which is master boot record. The main difference between the two viruses is a collation of the viral code. Master boot record specifically saves an authentic copy of MBR from a different location. For example, NBR is the best example of the master boot virus.
  • Boot sector virus: all computes have a boot program and that is run when the computer is starting. Boot sector viruses are infected to boot program on the hard drive, files, pen drive, floppy disk, etc. Boot sector virus is joining with the drive and it is run when computer user trying to start the computer. For example, disk killer, stoned.
  • Worms: it is a malicious program that can expand by self to different PCs by utilizing PC system. Worms often expend an enormous measure of resources by imitating itself and at last the assets are depleted and administrations are denied to the clients. A worm, as a rule, reproduces itself via mailing a duplicate of itself to an enormous number of clients or by utilizing remote login office through which its logon to the remote framework and execute directions to recreate itself.
  • Trojan horse: it is a program that holds unsafe code and direction methods which at the point when executed performs unsafe and undesirable capacities like burglary or loss of information. It is a security rupturing program which follows up on the rule of permitting unapproved programming into the PC framework and permitting other approved clients to run it. A Trojan pony doesn't imitate itself. To spread Trojan pony a client must welcome it onto their PC. To spread these projects, they can be put over the web as a music document, game, motion picture or as an email connection with the goal that the client can undoubtedly download it. It can without much of a stretch harm the security framework by altering, erasing or scrambling records.

Viruses Come From

Viruses come from global access network means the Internet, email attachment, local area network, pirated software, repair services, files servers, downloading files and some downloading software, floppy disk, file sharing, web sites, etc.

Virus Detection Techniques

There are so many antivirus organizations in the world in this situation. They are using various detection techniques to detect virus from the computer. Companies are design programming or software which are detect viruses from a specific location and remove from the computer without infected to another file.

Every organization must have antivirus software because they are working alongside many websites and email. So, detection is the topmost prioritize task for the organization.

There is five main detection technique of computer virus as per follow:

  1. Signature scanning techniques: this technique is to find out the special significance of the virus in the form of hexadecimal code from the database of signature. So, the database of signature code has been up to date for virus detection from vendor or scanning techniques.
  2. Check to sum: a trustworthiness check program with inherent knowledge is the main arrangement that can deal with every one of the dangers to your information just as infections. Honesty checkers additionally give the main dependable approach to find what harm an infection has done. These techniques require programming update at explicit interim.
  3. Memory detection techniques: software is mainly depending on the identification of the virus's location and code in the memory and it is generally successful in this technique.
  4. Heuristic or rule-based scanning techniques: this technique is behavioral characterizes of viruses. It is used to combine with the previous experiences and find malicious viruses. Heuristic techniques detect many new or unknown viruses within a static file on special command before virus will be activated.
  5. Interruption scanning techniques: according to the name, virus interrupt the system when it detects by antivirus software. Then it must be removed from the memory by antivirus software.


Antivirus means one kind of defense mechanism against the virus. Antivirus software can scan files and floppy disk to detect the malicious files and remove from the computer.

The Structure of the Antivirus

When antivirus will be installed into the computer system, to primary protection it is become a shield in the form of bubbles. Antivirus software is an isolated computer like a disconnect from the Internet and not to use any drive, floppy disk, etc. So, the virus can’t be spread into the computer or any devices. Antivirus contains some features that not only protect your machines but files. Also, it becomes one shield against all viruses which are come from email, the Internet, some websites, etc. Antivirus is mainly divided into three-part such as Internet security, total security, antivirus. Nowadays, some Internet security provider might contain spyware, firewall, scanning, malware and antivirus program.

How Antivirus Works

Antivirus software scans the data it has blocked for viruses, and if malicious activities are recognized, it sterilizes them. The data can be examined in two ways. One strategy includes looking at the data gotten with an infection database. If the data coordinates any of the virus sign, the antivirus infers that the record is infected by a virus. The other method for seeing whether the data being checked is risky, without knowing whether it contains a virus or not, is the technique known as 'heuristic filtering'. This technique involves examining how the data demonstrations and contrasting it and a rundown of hazardous activity patterns. For example, if a record that can arrange a hard circle is recognized, the antivirus will caution the client. Although it might be another arranging framework that the client is introducing on the PC instead of infection; the activity is perilous. Once the antivirus has sounded the caution, it is up to the client whether the peril ought to be wiped out or not. Both strategies have their pros and cons. On the off chance that solitary the infection marks framework is utilized, it is imperative to refresh it in any event once a day. When you remember that 15 new infections are found each day, an antivirus that is left for two or three days without being refreshed is a genuine danger. The heuristic framework has the downside that it can caution you about things that you know are not infections. If you need to work with plenty things that might be viewed as perilous, you could soon feel worn out on the alarms. Software engineers specifically may want to impair this alternative.

Antivirus Application or Software

  • Avast antivirus;
  • McAfee;
  • Avira Antivirus;
  • Norton;
  • Kaspersky Antivirus;
  • Microsoft security program;
  • AVG antivirus.


Despite all this information about antivirus and virus, all antivirus software can’t prevent brand new viruses. So, the software program needs to be updated every time to remove brand new viruses. There is no way to prevent 100% of the virus from your computer by antivirus, software or program. In this paper, we discussed the overview of viruses and antiviruses. How virus will be detected by the antiviruses and where it is coming from, how antivirus works and its applications.


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