Conservation of forest and wildlife in India (essay) along with questions and answers. Conservation of forest is necessary because forests provide many resources such as food, medicine, fabric, and raw materials. Further, apart from keeping a check on the global temperature, forests also contribute towards preventing soil from getting eroded and shelters more than 80% of the animal species and terrestrial biodiversity. They also aid in improving the socioeconomic aspects of a country.
What are forests – Conservation of forest
There are over 800 definitions of forest that are used around the world. Further, it is not necessary that an area has to be populated with trees for it to be deemed as a forest. And in some cases, an area can be legally designated as a forest, regardless of the type of local vegetation. Overall, forests are the natural habitat of large scale wildlife, growth of trees, shrubs and different variety of plants which, unfortunately, are dwindling every year. Hence, conservation of forest is an important responsibility that all of us have to undertake.
What is wildlife – Conservation of forest
Wildlife refers to the animal species that are not domesticated. So, any living organism that lives in the forest region is associated with wildlife. It is found in almost all ecosystems such as rainforests, boreal forests, plains, grasslands, deserts etc. Wildlife provides great stability to our environment wherein they are involved in natural processes either directly or indirectly. Each living organism is placed in the food chain and is equally important, they may be a producer, a consumer or a decomposer, all these are interlinked and depend on each other for their survival.
Importance of wildlife – Conservation of forest
- Important for their medicinal values: More than one-third of our pharmaceutical needs are catered by wild plants. Forests provide great scope for breakthroughs in the field of medical science and technology along with the requirements for the large-scale manufacture of antibiotics and other medicines for therapeutic uses.
- Helps keep our environment healthy: They are responsible for maintaining temperatures globally, thereby fighting against the greenhouse effect and in turn preventing the sea levels to rise sharply.
- Important to maintain ecological balance: the interdependence of plants and animals is very essential
- Economical importance: Fossil fuels obtained from forests help in the economic growth of the country, which in turn contributes towards a better standard of living.
- Helps preserve biodiversity: There are thousands of species that take shelter in these huge forests.
- Microorganisms in wildlife take part in nitrogen fixation, thus, bringing about an increase in the levels of soil fertility
Ways to Conserve the Forest
While deforestation cannot be avoided completely, we must look to control it. Young and immature trees should not be felled as far as possible. We must look to avoid large-scale commercial deforestation as well. Adapting practices such as clear-cutting or selective cutting will be beneficial in the long run.
Protect against Forest Fires
Forest fires are the most common and deadly cause of loss of forests. They can start due to natural causes or can be accidents caused by man or even intentional in some cases. Once a fire spreads in a forest it is very difficult to control. Precautions must be taken for such incidents. Making fire lanes, spreading chemicals to control fire, clearing out dry leaves, trees, etc.
This is the process by which we plant more trees in the area. We try to increase the forest cover by manual transplantation, or fresh plantation of trees. It is an attempt to balance our ecosystem to reduce the effects of deforestation and environmental pollutions of all types.
Better Farming Practices
Slash and burn farming, overgrazing by cattle, shifting agriculture are all farming practices that are harmful to the environment and particularly to forests. We must keep all these practices under control.
Jhoom farming is one such practice we can employ to combat forest pollution. In the North-east areas of India, where the land is kept barren after cutting the crops. Weeds and creepers and wild plants grow on this land and make it fertile again in time and then the land is cultivated again.
Other important ways to conserve the forests
- With the advent of industrialization, several trees have been cut at an alarming rate for raw materials and various other purposes. This felling of trees can be regulated by selective cutting, clear-cutting and shelterwood cutting.
- Forest fires are one of the common causes of loss of forests. Sometimes the forest land is set on fire to make the land available for commercial purposes. Once cleared, there can be no vegetation. Natural forest fires are also responsible for the destruction of huge forest covers. Latest fire fighting techniques should be adopted to conserve the forest. However, forest fires are an important part of the ecosystem and it helps replenish nutrients in the soil from dead and decaying matter.
- More trees should be planted to increase the forest cover. Trees should be selected according to the geographical conditions of a particular region and proper care should be taken during the growth of trees.
- Prevention of exploitation of forestry and forest products is necessary for the conservation of forest.
- The existing forests should be protected from diseases by spraying chemicals, antibiotics or development of pest-resistant strains of trees.
Conclusion – Conservation of forest
Conservation of forest and wildlife in India (essay) along with questions and answers. Almost 31% of the earth’s land surface is covered by forests. According to a 2015 report, 23% of India’s land cover consists of the forest region. Trees and plants in the forest are an integral part of the ecosystem. It sustains life on the planet, provides clean air and shelter. Also, forests help conserve biodiversity. Therefore, we must ensure that we conserve forests and wildlife.