Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is a personality theory which says that people go through different life stages of development, It basically focuses on the unconscious factor in which our drives are present which are the reason for our motivation, human mind also has three provinces which include:
- ID- pleasure principle, present entirely in unconscious. Has all our impulses, desires and pleasures.
- Ego- Reality principle, operates both in subconscious and conscious, it basically tries to fulfil id’s desire in an acceptable manner.
- Superego-Moral principle, operates unconscious and subconscious. Basically controls impulses and it demands for perfection.
Nafs seeks desires and like ID. It needs to be controlled so that destruction could be avoided as otherwise it could lead to issues for a person such as relating it to Islam a person might not be able to go to heaven if they’ve done zina or murdered someone. Therefore just like Freud’s defence mechanism-sublimation where one turns their unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable behaviour. Such as if a person is really violent they could do jihad in the name of Allah.
Qalb is the essence of a man. Pulled by both ROH and NAFS in opposite directions. A persons like should be balanced and Islam doesn’t believe in extremism in either directions.
Freud said that personality development occurs in 5 stages: Oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital stage. By the age of 5 most of a persons personality is already formed. Islam’s view of personality is that its generated from the self. Nafs Ammarah is the lower self which has our negative desires or drives. Animalistic self similar to ID. Nafs Lawammah is the self reproaching self which corresponds to the selfs when it becomes aware of the wrong doing. Nafs Mutmainah is the peaceful self in which is at peace and content that Allah is pleased.
Also we can relate God/Allah of Islam to Freud’s thinking of the father. In the later development stages. God/Allah is thought of as the most PERFECT in Islam. Muslims try to achieve God’s attributes in some degree. While looking into Freud’s concept of how a male child in the later part of the phallic stage starts to look at the father as an ideal. Also, as Freud believes having family problems in early life or not having a father can greatly affect a child’s life in their later years, same way Islam says that if God isn’t present in a persons life their life will be in shambles and therefore lead to issues or anxiety.
Also Islam says that when a person reaches puberty they should get married to fulfil their needs relating that to Freud’s last stage of development genitals in which a person has mature sexual interest. To avoid anxiety from ID a person indulges in sexual acts but these could be not acceptable in some societies and religions such as Islam. So either they can suppress it by excessive praying(sublimation) or get married to fulfil their needs. Also, Freud and Islam both say that dreams can be interpreted and they have both hidden(zanier) and manifested(batin) meaning.