Innovation Planning and Design Paper

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Design thinking is an analytic and creative process in which a person is encouraged to explore, create and prototype models, collect feedback, and rethink. The literature has highlighted some characteristics (e.g., visualization, originality) that a successful design thinker should have. The primary goal of this article is to summarise and synthesize design thinking research in order to (a) better understand its characteristics and processes, as well as the differences between novice and expert design thinkers, and (b) apply what we've learned from the literature to our educational system.

Introduction: Designers use design thinking to discuss and solve complicated challenges in the fields of design and design engineering. It's also advantageous for designers to come up with new, desired, and never-before-thought-of solutions for customers and clients.

Design thinking is widely employed in a variety of fields, including healthcare and wellness, agriculture, food security, education, financial services, and environmental sustainability.

Design thinking has aided in the development of digital products, aided in the development of physical items, aided in the development of social innovation projects, and much more.

The iterative design approach aids designers in meaningfully involving clients and customers. It is not only a way for thinking about practical solutions to a problem, but also a method for imagining unfathomable solutions and then attempting to make them not only feasible but also viable.

Design thinking combines logic, vivid imagination, methodical reasoning, and intuition to generate ideas that promise to solve clients' problems in a way that benefits them. It aids in the integration of creativity with commercial knowledge.

Different case studies from various sources on design thinking-based healthcare and healthcare systems were analyzed and the cumulative result was presented.

Design thinking has already gained widespread acceptance in the healthcare industry, with new products and improved design spaces being introduced. However, it is still underused in addressing some of the most critical challenges in healthcare, such as patient transportation and communication issues. Leaders can use design thinking to solve healthcare problems that can improve patient outcomes and lower costs.

The complexity of the review and the number of studies involved made it difficult to compare the effectiveness of Design Thinking across studies. The only study that had a null result was a study that was published in a journal. This study might have led to overestimating the utility of Design Thinking. It is possible that investigators did not report the methods they used. Also, they did not assess if Design Thinking was beneficial in other areas. Design Thinking-based health care innovations that were developed outside the research contexts are not yet considered in this literature.

Design Thinking: Redesigning things in Innovative ways.

This study explores how digital design agencies, as well as client companies, incorporate design thinking into their website development process. This process involves asking clients to develop a website that takes on complex problems. These website projects were then analyzed by key practitioners.

Through the analysis of these projects, it was detected that there are various user-centered approaches to website innovation. These approaches were then identified as the four phases of web planning, discovery, development, and delivery.

Some of the design thinking practices discovered were websites with brand promotion with some storytelling approach.

The key success factors of these website projects were conceptualized in light of the usual themes of design thinking like context awareness, collaboration, human-centeredness, and research-based.

The advantage came out to be that websites with a design thinking approach now have higher traffic as compared to those naive unsatisfactory websites.

Some of the shortcomings in adopting the design-thinking approach were identified. For instance, they did not spend enough time analyzing real user behavior. They also did not pay attention to developing personas that are representative of the real users.

The design thinking process is nonlinear and iterative, which means it can easily get stuck in the middle of solving a problem and then refine its solutions. This method is not suitable for early prototypes and can lead to late-stage product development.

When the reviews were made of all the data collected, there were some categories emerged.

The human-Centered approach to Design focuses on the people and their needs instead of the technological conditions. Early users are often the ones who can seek out user evaluation of a concept. This is a radical approach to collaborating with users and seeking added value.

Design management describes how a design can gain customers' loyalty and gain trust which can lead to better management.

Strategic design concerns how a company stands and expresses itself in the market. It emphasizes strategies of communication and service from the company.

The advantages are:

Design can be used to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. It can be used to set oneself out from your competitors.

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Design can also be an enabler, where it can improve the processes involved in developing new products and services, such as time to market, establishing consensus in teams, and managing complex projects.

Design can be a resource that can help create new business opportunities or improve the understanding of the marketplace.

Finally, design can be focused on good business, where it can help improve the profitability of the company and society at large.

A huge amount of time is utilized in understanding the technique by students and can make the process of education overwhelming.

It states that the course curriculum should be redesigned in order to achieve something better for students. Some topics that should be introduced are:

Preparation describes that teams must be formed, with each team responsible for solving a challenge. Instead of having homogeneous teams, teams should be constructed with varying levels of complexity, allowing students to come up with their own solutions. The Discovery of challenges refers to the process of gathering information in order to better grasp the challenge's context. It is stressed here that students get out of the classroom and collect data on users' experiences as well as people with expert knowledge about the problem. Interpretation of the challenge states that before we start analyzing the data, it's important that the teams have gathered various details about the challenge. This is where the concept of need analysis comes into play. This should now be followed by solution ideation and prototyping. Students' solutions should be designed with an eye on the future, according to solutions and future.

Using design thinking approaches in education and learning, one can greatly improve the quality of education which can lead to more entrepreneurs from students. This can greatly enhance the mindset of students to become job givers instead of becoming job seekers.

Students will take more time to grasp the concept of design thinking which will lead to delays in their learning approach.

Design thinking in education is a mindset and approach to learning, collaboration, and problem-solving. In practice, the design process in the field of education is a structured framework for identifying challenges, gathering information, generating potential solutions, refining ideas, and testing solutions. Design Thinking can be flexibly implemented; serving equally well as a framework for a course design or a roadmap for an activity or group project.

The main advantage which has come out is that the students have a better approach to learning as compared to just written learning the technique.

Usually, Students have to spend more time in it as they are new to it, so more time is wasted in learning the design thinking technique which has to be spent in their study. It also required the direct involvement of users and more attention has to be paid to it. The design thinking technique has a lot of restrictions imposed by integration with systems that are already in use.

if an organization is to embed design thinking, it must reveal, confront and take responsibility for all aspects of its current culture. The company must then create a culture that embraces design thinking in order to succeed in the future marketplace. Finally, the company must make the necessary modifications quickly. Any other method runs the risk of just repackaging the old culture without actually changing it. As a result, the new culture may unintentionally adopt characteristics of the old culture—aspects that undermine design thinking's benefits.

The advantage is that the work culture is maintained. Everyone is able to work freely and independently. There are no conflicts between the employees and the company runs at a smoother pace.

It's more focused on generating new ideas than understanding how they might actually work. It often underestimates the strategic context of how specific industries and markets really work.

In a world where traditional ways of life and thus addressing issues are becoming increasingly complex and globally intertwined, social innovators and entrepreneurs alike must embrace new ways of relating to their surroundings when it comes to problem-solving. In order to solve societal difficulties, interdisciplinary, innovative, and contextual thinking is increasingly required, and design thinking has been praised as one of the most successful strategies for doing so.

The advantage of design thinking in innovation is that everyone gets to learn and explore new and futuristic things and it also helps in their social development.

The disadvantage of its social innovation is that everyone needs to adapt to it and it's not possible to do it very quickly. It will take some time for everyone to learn and adapt to it.

In business, we tend to solve problems in a systematic, logic-based manner. We select current strategies and deliver them in lengthy PowerPoints and presentations. However, design thinking is a modern technique and mentality that can change how people think, reimagine, and solve the most complicated business challenges while also delivering value.

Businesses were able to expand and reach and advertise more which helped them to gather more reputation and more profits.

Solving very complex problems is still not possible in businesses by the use of design thinking techniques. Hence some problems have to be solved by other techniques too and as it technique is new not every employee has an idea about it.

Cumulative results of the above table system

Design thinking can play an important role in development. It is not unique to designers; it has been used by all great innovators in science, engineering, business, and many more. From website innovation using design thinking, four websites were rewarded with the Korean Web Award due to their approach to solving problems in unique and productive ways. All the researches state that be it any field, design thinking surely can make the experience better. Also, design thinking can play a major role in the education of students as it can include topics that can benefit students to become entrepreneurs. Businesses also used design thinking to advertise and expand as it helped them to gather more customers which lead to greater profits and well being of the organization.


Design thinking is a notion that can be used in a variety of fields. From education, law, and medicine to ICT, business management, human resource management, and design itself, design thinking principles enable and empower professionals to approach a problem statement step by step and consider all relevant elements in order to arrive at the optimal solution.


  • Gives you the chance to look at a problem from a different angle.
  • Allows you to investigate a problem in order to find the source of the issue.
  • Encourages imaginative problem solving and innovative thinking.
  • Ensures that the finished product satisfies the goals and expectations of the client.
  • Results in an experience that is more effective and informative for the learners.


  • Some people view design thinking as a simple linear process.
  • Some people’s perspective is that design thinking is just a 2-3 day workshop.
  • It's more focused on generating new ideas than understanding how they might actually work.
  • Design Thinking can’t be used in processes that are not open-ended.
  • It takes some time to learn and adapt to the technique of design thinking.


  1. Design Thinking in Health Care https:pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov30264690
  2. https:www.researchgate.netpublication327917641_Design_Thinking_in_Health_Care
  3. MacFadyen JS. Design thinking. Holist Nurs Pract 2014;28(1):3–5. 10.1097HNP.0000000000000008 - DOI - PubMed
  4. Roberts JP, Fisher TR, Trowbridge MJ, Bent C. A design thinking framework for healthcare management and innovation. Healthc (Amst) 2016;4(1):11–4. 10.1016j.hjdsi.2015.12.002 - DOI - PubMed
  5. Adopting Design Thinking for Website Innovation: Case Studies of Korean Award Winners
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Innovation Planning and Design Paper. (2022, December 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 18, 2024, from
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