IoT Based Accident Detection And Rescue System

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It is estimated that urban populations in developing countries are currently growing at around 4 % per annum. Many developing world cities are increasing the capacity of their road networks, but often at the expense of the safety of the vulnerable road users. As a result, many people die and are injured unnecessarily in road crashes with the consequential social economic and health burdens imposing heavy constraints on sustainable development.“In developing countries, the situation (road safety) is made worse by rapid and unplanned urbanisation. The absence of adequate infrastructure in our cities, together with the lack of a legal regulatory framework, makes the exponential rise in the number of road accidents all the more worrying.The numbers of road accidents are increasing at an alarming rate in India. Thus, there is an urgent need for a systematic approach to improve road safety. The road accidents deaths and injuries are global phenomena but more sever situation in mixed traffic condition as prevailing on India multilane roads.According to WHO, an estimated 632 people are killed on Indian roads every day.In case of India, road injuries are one of the top four leading causes of death and health loss among persons of age group 15-49 years.Thus, there is an urgent need to improve safety of the road way and its features. Considering this importance of the road safety, the statistical analysis of accident is carried out atcritical locations or road stretches which will help to arrive at suitable measures to effectively decrease accidents rates.


When the accident occur sometimes for the rescue ambulance can't get the message soon because of the lesw technology or sometimes there may be network problem.

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If the accident occur at the place where less vehicals are moving then tere may be more chances of death.By these rescue system the message of occured accident can get soon to the defined number.And the ambulance can reach as soon as possible at the accident place.By these there may less chances of death.


Our lives became easier with the Quick accretion of technology and infrastructure. The advent of technology has also rise the traffic hazards and the road accident take place repeatedly which causes massive loss of life and property because of the poor emergency facilities. Recently, intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have emerged as an efficient way of improving interpretation of transportation systems and enhancing travel safety. Accident detection systems are one of the most effective (ITS) tools. The accident detected system which based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) can be accomplish though one or several sensors, the system can gathers the information and coordinates of accident spot then send this data to the rescues services center over a network link in shortest time, It represented as an instance helping system. In this review paper, we proposed an intelligent system that composed of a GPS receiver, Vibration sensor, GSM Modem and integrated with Vehicular AD-Hoc Network (VANET). The employ of (VANET) by enhanced Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector protocol (AODV) helps these services in finding the optimum route to the emergency message. The use of GSM, GPS, and VANET technologies allows the system to track vehicle and provides the most instant and accurate information about the vehicle accident spot.

A large number of precious lives are lost due to road traffic accidents every day. The common reasons are driver's mistake and late response from emergency services. There is a need to have an effective road accident detection and information communication system in place to save injured persons. A system that sends information messages to nearby emergency services about the accident location for timely response is absolutely in need. In research literature, a number of automatic accident detection systems are proposed by numerous researchers. These include accident detection using smartphones, GSM and GPS technologies, vehicular ad-hoc networks and mobile applications. The implementation of an automatic road accident detection and information communication system in every vehicle is very crucial. This paper presents a brief review on automatic road accident detection techniques used to save affected persons. An automatic road accident detection technique based on low cost ultrasonic sensors is also proposed.

The rapid growth of technology and infrastructure has madeour lives easier. The advent of technology has also increasedthe traffic hazards and the road accidents take place frequently, which causes huge loss of life and property because of the poor emergency facilities. Even with so many modern devices present in the field of vehicle design, road lane design and heavy traffic control accidents do occur at a large scale. Accident threatens human lives more and mainly road accident is common today. During accident many people lose their life because medical services and family membernot getting accidental information on time. Any kind of accident detected is automatically sent as an alert to the required destination. Accident detection device installed in a vehicles when meet with an accident will send SMS/messages to the pre-install numbers of the drivers family members, police station, ambulance and nearest hospital. This embedded system is useful for tracking and retrieving the exact position of any vehicle, which has met with an accident by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and sensors.

An accelerometer is a tool that measures proper acceleration. Proper acceleration is the acceleration (the rate of change of velocity) of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame. this is different from coordinate acceleration, which is acceleration in a fixed coordinate system. For example, an accelerometer at rest on the surface of the Earth will measure an acceleration due to Earth's gravity, straight upwards (by definition) of g ≈ 9.81 m/s2. By contrast, accelerometers in free fall (falling toward the center of the Earth at a rate of about 9.81 m/s2) will measure zero.

Accelerometers have many uses in industry and science. Highly sensitive accelerometers are used in inertial navigation systems for aircraft and missiles. Vibration in rotating machines is monitored by accelerometers. They are used in tablet computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always displayed upright. In unmanned aerial vehicles, accelerometers help to stabilise flight

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. 'Uno' means 'One' in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for a comparison with previous versions, see the index of Arduino boards.


The Global Positioning System GPS module is used to detect the location of vehicle. To find the location on the earth the whole is divided into some coordinates where the location can be easily captured by a module called GPS module. Here the GPS used isSIM28ML. This GPS module will find the location of the vehicle and the information fetched by the GPS receiver is received through the coordinates and the received data is first send to arduino and the information is transmitted to the saved contact through GSM module. The frequency is operated in the range of 1575.42 MHz and the output of GPS module is in NMEA format which includes data like location in real time.


Using proteus software we make simulation of circuit interfacing of vibration sensor with Arduino.

After the simulatiom of vibration sensor with arduino the result shown in two values one is high and second is low. The above figure shows the result of high value means there may be accident occur.

After the simulatiom of vibration sensor with arduino the result shown above is of low value means there may be no accident


The proposed system deals with the accident alerting and detection. Arduino is the heart of the system which helps in transferring the message to different devices in the system. Accelerometer sensor And vibration sensor will be activated when the accident occurs and the information is transferred to the registered number through GSM module. Using GPS the location can be sent through tracking system to cover the geographical coordinates over the area. The accident can be detected by a accelerometer sensor and vibration senaor which is used as major module in the system.


There are several papers publications dealing with the issues like accident occur and the rescue system is little bit slow. Sometimes there may be too late to rescue and the result may be of death. Fast recue system techniques and important information was derived from the major references paper below.

  1. Kiran Sawant, Imran Bhole, Prashant Kokane,PirajiDoiphode,Prof. Yogesh Thorat, “Accident Alert and Vehicle Tracking System”, International Journal of Innovative Analysis in laptop and Communication Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 5, May 2016.
  2. MrsManasiPatil, AanchalRawat, Pratik Singh, Srishtie Dixit,“Accident Detection and Ambulance Control using Intelligent Traffic Control System”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) ,Volume 34-Number 8,April 2016.
  3. V.Sagar Reddy, Dr.L.PadmaSree, V. Naveen Kumar, “Design and Development of accelerometer based System for driver safety”, International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014.
  4. Sri Krishna Chaitanya Varma, Poornesh, Tarun Varma, Harsha,“Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection And Messaging System Using GPS and GSM Modems”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2013.
  5. Apurva Mane, Jaideep Rana, “Vehicle Collision detection and Remote Alarm Device using Arduino”, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.4, No.3, June 2014.
  6. Prof.Mrs.Bhagya Lakshmi V, Prof.SavithaHiremath, Prof.SanjeevMhamane, “FPGA Based Vehicle Tracking and Accident Warning using GPS”, International Journal of Scientific &Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 2, February-2014.
  7. 'A Brief History Of GPS Vehicle Tracking',, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 16- Jul- 2017]
  8. Asaad M. J. Al-Hindawi, IbraheemTalib,“Experimentally Evaluation of GPS/GSM Based System Design”, Journal of Electronic Systems Volume 2 Number 2 June 2012 KunalMaurya ,Mandeep Singh, Neelu Jain, “ Real Time Vehicle Tracking System using GSM and GPS Technology- An Antitheft Tracking System,” International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering. ISSN 2277-1956/V1N3-1103-1107.
  9. V.Ramya, B. Palaniappan, K. Karthick, “Embedded Controller for Vehicle In-Front Obstacle Detection and Cabin Safety Alert System”, International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol.4, No 2, April 2012
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IoT Based Accident Detection And Rescue System. (2022, February 21). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 17, 2024, from
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