Leukemia, Its Types, Symptoms, and Role in Destroying the Cells of the Body

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It is a blood cancer that affects white blood cells that affects children, but it may sometimes affect adults and is less complicated than blood cancer, and it is more common in men, This occurs when the rate of white cells resulting from their normal limit increases, As it is the white blood cells that are responsible for immunity in the body.

1 / how leukemia develops in the body?

It begins with the stage of producing large numbers of white blood cells in excess of the normal rate produced by the body and that go with blood after it comes out of the great bone marrow, where those extra cells do not maintain the body's immunity as the cells that are similar to it do to nature but rather destroy in the blood and then move to Body parts such as spleen, liver, and others.

2 / how leukemia is diagnosed?

A doctor can diagnose leukemia, know its type, and treat it with several tests:

  • A / Physical test on the body where the doctor examines the internal organs of the body and the knowledge of swollen ones such as the liver, sple,en and lymph nodes.
  • B / Bone marrow test, through which you can determine the type of cells affected.
  • D / A test to find out the amount of white blood cells present in the blood and if the number is greater than normal or not.

How to treat leukemia?

There are many ways in which leukemia is treated, but all of them show a better and faster improvement if the disease is detected earlier because it requires treatment for a long time. One of those methods is chemotherapy by transplanting stem cells from a healthy person because it is the same blood type.


White blood cells

White platelets have a basic and significant job in the body. It is to keep up the safe framework and assault all pandemics and sicknesses. Along these lines, that is, regardless of whether enormous or little, it is separated into three sorts:

1 /Granulocytes

It contains protein inside and is divided into three types

a. Basophils b. Eosinophils c. Neutrophils

2 / Lymphocytes

a. B cells b. T cells c. Natural killer cells

3 / Monocytes

Normal ranges

The natural proportions of white blood cells differ from one human to another according to age, where the percentage is very high in children where they need more for them to strengthen their immunity and decrease through days until they decrease until they reach adult age

Normal range


13000:38000 cell

Newborn infant

5000:20000 cell

2-week-old infant

4500:11000 cell


There are many symptoms that a person may have when a defect occurs in the number of white blood cells, which are divided into the following:

Low white blood cell count

High white blood cell count

1/ bone marrow disorders

2/ vitamin B-12 deficiencies

3/ HIV

4/ leukemia

1/ infections

2/ burns

3/ leukemia

4/ trauma

· White blood cell test

The white blood cell count test is one of the most important tests where in turn one can find many diseases that the body suffers from, including an infection test, an allergy test, and a blood cancer test.

Types of leukemia

There are several types of leukemia as they are classified according to the type of infected white blood cells and the rate of cell growth if it is chronic or temporary.


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  • (CLL)

It differs from the timer, as it affects adults and rarely appears in children, where stem cells become infected and turn into cells of an abnormal nature. The cure rate in recent years is 83.2% and symptoms do not appear until after years of injury.

  • (ALL)

It is an injury in stem cells, where children are often affected and adults may develop. Symptoms appear after a short period of injury, and the cure rate in the last years of it has reached 68.2%.

Lymphocytic leukemia

  • (CML)

It develops slowly, with a cure rate of 66.9%, and it affects adults more than most age groups

  • (AML)

It develops very quickly from the rest of the species, in addition to that, it happens for all ages, without exception, as the recovery rate resulting from recent years is small, which is 26%.

Myelogenous leukemia


The prevalence of leukemia is much lower than that of the lymph nodes, as it is, as they are both already more male males than women, and the cure rate of lymphoma is higher .

Symptoms of leukemia include:

  • Night sweats*
  • Fever*
  • Loss of appetite*
  • Chills *
  • Bone pain *
  • Red spots on the skin *
  • Enlarged lymph nodes*

*easily bruised skin

Blood cancer causes various symptoms, depending on the organ that was affected, as it may affect the lungs, digestive system, kidneys, heart, and nervous system. If the nervous system is affected, it leads to imbalance in the body and not to control it and the muscles.

Risk factors

There are many factors that, in turn, cause leukemia, including hereditary diseases in the family, or exposure to disease by radiation, chemicals, and a weak immune system. All these symptoms increase from the disease, which is often between the ages of 15 to 40 years.


There are many types to determine and recognize if a person has leukemia through routine checks of the patient, where all the patient's data are collected from symptoms he experienced and hereditary diseases in the family where the illness may be inherited in the family, then the patient performs several tests that are done Discovering the disease and determining the type of leukemia, including these physical exams and knowing the amount of white blood cells and other tests.

*There are several tests that are performed to know the patient. These tests include testing liver function, and whether the effect of leukemia on the rate of its interaction, activity and functions inside the body, as well as a DNA test for the speed of white blood cell growth, through which it may identify the type of leukemia from under the microscope if acute lymphocytic leukemia or was Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia, examination of the spinal fluid through the lumbar vertebrae, through which it reaches the neurologist. White blood cells are immature and damaged.

How these aid the world ?

In reality, information on the entirety of the above is the place white platelets are and their significance and types and what results from the expansion and diminishing in them and what finishes numerous sorts brought about by those things, including leukemia, which speaks to a major issue while recognizing it in late occasions as it has side effects that recognize it from the remainder of the kinds of malignancy found in the body It additionally has various sorts that contrast from the other in the pace of recuperation from them at the time the manifestations showed up, regardless of whether it was toward the start or end, and the impact is boundless in youngsters, grown-ups, grown-ups, ladies, and men, just as the reasons for leukemia, frequently brought about by radiation, synthetic substances, and hereditary ailments, just as the hazard factors that If he is presented to it, he may make him wiped out and furthermore how the specialist manages the patient and performs tests that thus uncover the sort of leukemia of various sorts.

Methodology of leukemia:

Leukemia methodology, which in turn explains how the disease develops and occurs and is divided into four main phases:

1/Preprocessing. 2/processing. 3/initial diagnosis. 4/advance diagnosis

  • Preprocessing the preprocessing: *

Preprocessing the preprocessing From the first stages that are done in order to narrate the slide where it is unclear, the delegate of these images shows the lack of clarity of the images and the noise in them.

  1. Poor quality microscopic image for hypergranulated acute promyelocytic leukemia
  2. Poor quality microscopic image for acute myeloid leukemia without Maturation

A.fuzzy filter:

It is necessary to use devices to clarify the microscopic image that may be affected and become noise when it is transferred under the microscope from those devices applied fuzzy filter, thus removing the noise to some extent.After applying fuzzy filter

Image Sharpening b.

It is used to increase and clarify image pixels

c. Enhance Contrast

Enhance Contrast it is used to illustrate the image, as you are viewing the images for some.

  • Processing Phase

This stage is divided into several steps and they are

  1. Convert RGB to HSV
  2. Normalize HSV from [ 0 , 360 ] degree to [ 0 , 1] .
  3. Separate hue, saturation, and value.
  4. Keep saturation and value components, ignore hue.
  5. Create binary image using saturation and value threshold.
  6. Removing Small objects.
  7. Fill holes using Dilation.
  8. Replicate the mask in 3D RGB.
  9. Initial diagnosis.

Treatment of leukemia

There are numerous approaches to treat leukemia and contrast starting with one individual then onto the next, contingent upon his age and wellbeing condition, and whether this was influenced by his nerves, his Spinal liquid, or not.

Treatment of leukemia is one of the most troublesome ways as not numerous types are analyzed in the first place and are found in its last phases of appearance, because of the side effects of the ailment that show up toward the finish of the sickness stages and this open door must beginning treatment in the prompt and it is hard to have influenced the spinal liquid in light of the fact that along these lines It can't be controlled and there are numerous strategies for treatment, including chemotherapy, directed treatment, natural treatment, and radiotherapy.

  • Targeted therapy *

Targeted therapy is one of the most important therapies that help in the treatment of leukemia. Some of them are pills and injections. They are used to treat some types of leukemia, including ALL and CML. This type may cause cancer cells to stop growing instead of killing them. Also, these drugs have side effects such as bloating, swelling, rashes, and diarrhea.

  • Biological therapy. *

Biological therapy is one of the most important treatments. Biomaterials extracted from living organisms are used, as it results in swelling and fever. It also enhances the immune system that identifies foreign cells and destroys them.

  • *Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy is the most difficult type in the side effects, in which the patient's psyche is destroyed from their occurrence, as hair, pain in the body; bruises, nausea, and loss of appetite are caused. Spaced periods between both doses.

  • Outcome:

Toward the finish of this exploration, practically all what identifies with white platelets and their extraordinary job in the insusceptible framework, their common extents and their various kinds and infections coming about because of the inadequacy and the expansion in them are referenced where the defective increment is only blood disease that is a threatening sickness that enters the body in its name and that causes its different indications p The patient's body, regardless of whether in the beginning of ailment or toward its finish, as per the sort of leukemia, whose manifestations might be fever, tremor, weakness, night sweats and bone agony, and furthermore knew how it spread in the body and the dangers that may make it happen from radiation, concoction and ailment on the off chance that it is acquired in the family previously and furthermore in what way The revelation of the ailment by Dr, it is a higher priority than crafted by assessment, including a blood test and the sort of white platelets and overabundance tests and test Physical Other And among them, the kind of malady is recognized and the treatment explicit to it is resolved, how is the strategy for illness, assessment of various slides, and explanation under the magnifying instrument and the a wide range of sorts of treatment that help in this, including essential and best chemotherapy, yet its troublesome reactions utilized in this and focused on treatment that additionally has an enormous viable job And likewise natural treatment recovered from living beings.


  1. Matsuyama, T., Kojima, S., & Kato, K. (1998). Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for childhood leukemia following a busulfan and melphalan preparative regimen. Bone marrow transplantation, 22(1), 21-26.‏
  2. Sawyers, C. L. (1999). Chronic myeloid leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(17), 1330-1340.
  3. Pui, C. H., Relling, M. V., & Downing, J. R. (2004). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(15), 1535-1548.‏
  4. Mrozek, K., Heerema, N. A., & Bloomfield, C. D. (2004). Cytogenetics in acute leukemia. Blood reviews, 18(2), 115-136.‏.‏‏
  5. Esparza, S. D., & Sakamoto, K. M. (2005). Topics in pediatric leukemia–acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Medscape general medicine, 7(1), 23.‏
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Leukemia, Its Types, Symptoms, and Role in Destroying the Cells of the Body. (2022, July 14). Edubirdie. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/leukemia-its-types-symptoms-and-role-in-destroying-the-cells-of-the-body/
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