Meritocracy is part of a neoliberal ideology that has been made into an educational policy called marketisation and commodification. It is supposed to be a social system which gives people status or rewards because of what they achieve, rather than because of cultural and economic capital. This should therefore create equal opportunity for all of those in society, no matter what social class background they come from. Meritocracy is linked to social mobility as there is social inequality even though...
Abstract: One of the most distinguishing features of contemporary India is the emergence and rise of the new middle class/es (hereafter NMC). After the 1990s liberalization, the NMC became the focus of attention due to its socio-economic mobility, socio-cultural and political influence, and consumer potential. The confident and ambitious NMC has sprouted up across the country with about 300-400 million people and increasing rapidly. The purpose of the present article is to demonstrate that the emerging NMC is relatively an...
Henrike Donner’s book ‘Domestic Goddesses: Maternity, Globalization and Middle-class Identity in Contemporary India’ published as a series of articles, is an ethnographic endeavor into the Calcutta of the 1990s. With the data she collects through extensive fieldwork, she examines the lives of its middle-class women, and how their identities got shaped and morphed by the processes of globalization and the introduction of neo-liberal policies. Donner limits her field to two paras (neighborhoods) in Calcutta, in the period between 1995-2005, she...
The article focuses on the new middle classes and their consumption practices in the wake of the policies of consumption recently introduced by the Russian state (the embargo on food imports and the strategy of import substitution), and on the background of the economic crisis. The future of this group, largely acknowledged through globalized consumption practices, seems now uncertain. Nevertheless, they accept these changes with resilience; moreover, many managed to generate support or to acknowledge rationalities in the new policies...
Before understanding the problems of an Indian middle-class family we should first understand what is a middle-class family. A middle-class family is a social group that consists of ordinary people who usually have good jobs and are neither rich nor very poor. Monetary Problem: This is one of the most common problems a middle-class man has to deal with. With the slumping economy and the ever-increasing costs of everything from groceries to petrol, how can one expect something different? With...
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Counter-urbanisation is the process by which the population of a country becomes less centralised in large urban areas and people begin to sprawl out towards urban areas (Cloke, 1985). In Britain it is often associated with the migration of the middle-class from cities towards smaller communities, either for good in the context of retirement of commuting, or taken on as a second home (Gallent, 2006). These middle-class households leave urban areas in search of an escape to the British countryside...
Abstract China now is being analyzed by different types of international organizations and researchers that the economic development is well developed in China nowadays and a higher proportion rate of the middle class occurs, indicating that the middle class would be the major group in the Chinese population structure and should have more power in different aspects, for instance, economy and politics, according to the modernization theory. However, there is still a widening gap on political development between western developed...
Chapter One. Introduction Starting from 2015 the Egyptian government under the rule of President Abdel Fattah El Sisi started to develop new economic policies and reforms and since November 2016 it started to accelerate the implementation of these policies and economic decisions, the reforms mentioned included subsidy cuts, increased indirect taxes, and currency adjustment, all o theses have been done in order to pave the way to an agreement with the IMF for a major loan. Here comes a question...