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My Academic Research in Critical Awareness of Issues Surrounding Current Research in HCI

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Question 1: Critical awareness of issues surrounding current research in HCI

My chosen paper

Garbett, A., Chatting, D., Wilkinson, G., Lee, C. and Kharrufa, A. (2018). CHI '18 Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Paper No. 7. In: CHI '18 Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Paper No. 7. ThinkActive: Designing for Pseudonymous Activity Tracking in the Classroom [online] Montreal QC, Canada: ACM, p.13. Available at: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3173581 [Accessed 7 Nov. 2018].

Research problem/question

The research was aimed at primary school children designed in helping to reflect upon “their own personal activity data in the classroom” CHI (2018 Paper p.1) [1]. ThinkActive is a system that fulfil the engaging of the children using pseudonymous avatars, which are used in promoting the reflection by using personal data, and displaying the data within the classroom incorporating an inside display for the participants to view their progress. ThinkActive was deployed over a six-week period using 30 primary school students which were “located within the top 1% of most deprived areas of the UK” CHI (2018 Paper p.7) [1]. ThinkActive exploits low-cost activity trackers and pseudonymous avatars which allow the students to reflect upon their events which will insure that they stay active. Researches reported on the “motivations, challenges, and opportunities for students, teachers, and third-party providers to engage in the collection and sharing of activity data with primary school children” CHI (2018 Paper p.1) [1]. The research was working in partnership with the “English Premier League Football club’s health and nutrition programme” CHI (2018 Paper p.1) [1]

What was already known about the topic?

Background information is used to expand upon key points by identifying and describing the history and nature of a well-defined research problem with reference to existing literature. Background information was used within this research to determine the root of the problem being studied, appropriate context of the problem in relation to the theory, research and/or practice, its scope and the extent to which previous studies have successfully investigated the relevant problem which is currently being researched. Within this research the author discussed a research which was conducted to “identify the timing of changes in physical activity during childhood and adolescence.” This research helps the author to define when the participant physical activity begins to decline. In the conclusion of this research the author stated “Future policy and research efforts to promote physical activity should begin well before adolescence, and should include both boys and girls”. [2] The researches took this aspect into deliberation when conducting the research. Likewise, another research paper was emphasized regarding the QS (Quantified self) movement. “The QS movement has individual dispersed across the world— “Self-quantifiers” or “Quantified-selfer”—who are not only producing troves of data by virtue of simply doing about their daily business, but also they are now becoming conscious consumers of the data that they themselves are producing”. The research conducted used the participants data to monitor the activities of the children, which was then used for “the students, this would be a fun and healthy activity, with opportunities for competition and personal reflection, whilst developing their data literacy.” [CHI] Personal informatics helps people collect and reflect upon personal information to help them improve and grow by analysing the data captured. “Li et al [4] define personal informatics as systems that “help people collect personally relevant information for the purpose of self-reflection and gaining self-knowledge”. This research showed the important of collecting personal relevant information to self-reflect the participants activity tracking to allow them to gain self-knowledge of the process.

Does this research draw upon other disciplines as well as HCI?

Psychology was used within the research discipline to help participants collect personal data and reflect upon the results. Naturalistic observation helped participants be observed within their natural setting, information is obtained, and hypotheses and questions are formed for additional research. Likewise, participants view the data gathered and are able to gain self-knowledge. “Li et al [6] define personal informatics as systems that “help people collect personally relevant information for the purpose of self-reflection and gaining self-knowledge”. Sport sciences was a discipline within the research, it was used to engage participants within activities to make them more active. Technology was used to track the student’s activity and performance was monitored throughout the process. The participant was able to view their individual avatar anonymously and compete with their class mates. Studies show that there was a decline in physical activity in childhood and adolescence. “Four trajectories of change in total volume of physical activity were identified representing 100% of all participants: all trajectories declined from age 7 years.” [7] This research states that “efforts to promote physical activity” [7] is very important when children are growing up as it will improve their lifestyle for the future ensuring a healthier life.

“As HCI researchers our academic interest was in the design and deployment of these technologies within this complex interplay of stakeholders.” [CHI] The quote proposes the interest the researches had within the study. They have covered aspects of technology and deployed it to view the feedback of the human interaction of the interface design.

What is the original contribution of this paper?

Empirical contribution was researched to observe new knowledge through data gathering. “Initial understandings of participating in the practice of personal informatics primarily focuses on individuals in the process of engaging in data collection and reflection for positive behaviour change (or health monitoring) [5].”

“Wearable devices (Fitbit, Misfit Shine etc.) are frequently associated with an installed companion mobile application.”[CHI] Technology was used to gather data. Dataset collection helped determine the progress of the participant. The device was also an invention of a new system to determine the progress of the participants.

Question 2: Evaluate the outcome and consequences of the research

Explain why this research was done

The research was conducted to take a deeper inside aspect of social sense-making by reflecting on activities carried out through a range of aggregate personal data. The data was than visualised by the participants to monitor their progress. The research was carried out to engage participants in competing against each other for a healthier lifestyle “For the students, this would be a fun and healthy activity, with opportunities for competition and personal reflection, whilst developing their data literacy” [CHI]. It can be argued that many aspects were covered within this research such as sport science, psychology and HCI. Psychology was incorporated within the research to help participants collect personal data and reflect upon the results. Likewise, participants view the data gathered and are able to gain self-knowledge. Sport sciences was used as well within the research, to engage participants within activities to make them more active. Technology was used to track the student’s activity and performance was monitored throughout the process. The participant was able to view their individual avatar anonymously and compete with their class mates.

The research was mainly aimed to view the feedback of the deployed system and record the human interaction of the interface design. “As HCI researchers our academic interest was in the design and deployment of these technologies within this complex interplay of stakeholders.” [CHI] therefore main reason for carrying out this research was to see the way in which the participants were using the device to interact.

Who are the potential beneficiaries of this research?

  • Funders
  • Schools (Governing bodies)
  • Future researchers
  • Commercial companies
  • Society (Mainly parents)
  • Children’s

What are the potential benefits to the identified beneficiaries?

Beneficiaries Benefits

Children’s Children’s are the main beneficiaries from the study. The main aim for the study was to help the children reflect upon their personal activity within the classrooms. By doing so children’s will be more motivated, and increase their interest into carrying out physical exercise. The study helps them keep track of the activities which helps them reflect upon their progress. This also, helps them stay motivated and help increase the competition between the children into achieving a better score and a better lifestyle.

Schools (Governing bodies) Schools will also, benefit from the research as it will motivate the children to be more engaged within their physical activities. Using the device, it will create more challenges for the students and engage in a more active lifestyle. Governing bodies will be able to gather accurate results and data of physical education, and learn how to improve the health of its students. Additional funding can be provided for putting these techniques into practice.

Future researchers

Future studies can also be conducted due to the outcome of this research. It can help researches elaborate more on the research by conducting more research. This will help the research become more reliable and help determine new ways in which this aspect could be tested. Funds will be needed to conduct the studies for improving the wellbeing of children. Commercial companies can make financial income by selling parents the devices to allow them to track their children physical activity.

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Primarily, the research can be very beneficial to the funders of the study. The data gathered can be used to generate a financial compelling of evidence and statistic for the funders. This will be generated by using the data gathered to determine new hypothesis of how to improve children’s engagement in activity. The research helps define the children’s participation to activity to encourage a more active approach to everyday actions by competing against each other.

Funders

To what extent do the authors demonstrate the potential significant / impact of this work?

The research based on the primary school children that have participated in the study have collected personal information within their classroom to obtain information, and hypotheses and questions are formed for additional research. The impact this has on the participants is, showing them the data which they have produced. This will make them more aware of their physical activities which they carry out within a day. The impact will also, be more visible as they will have the ability to improve and compete with other participants which will encourage them into a healthier lifestyle.

The author concludes the study within the social context delivered in the classroom, and did not deliver a full account of the problems that could possibly ascend which time may convey. Likewise, the design of the technology and deployment of the study was mainly focused on the HCI aspect of the research to see how the participants where interacting with the design of the technology. Allowing, the researches to get feedback on what to improve to improve the impact it has on the participants.

Question 3: Reflect on theory and practice in which new knowledge is established

Explain what research methods were used to obtain the findings in this paper

Applied research and field studies was used within the research to obtain the findings in the paper. applied research is research which seeks to solve practical problems. The problem within this study was engaging participants in physical activity to improve the problem which was addressed about obesity and depression. Applied research plays an important role in solving everyday problems which have an impact on life and health. The problem addressed was used to generate data and find new ways in which it could be improved. Furthermore, case studies were used to conduct background information which was used to determine what was already known about the topic this generated new ways in obtaining the finding of the research. The purpose is to understand and evaluate the problem to create better re-engineered solution.

What are the strengths and limitations of the research approach? Why were the methods suitable for the research?

Strengths Limitations

Semi-structured interviews allowed the researchers to gain an inside of the problem. They were able to track to what extent the participants were using the activity tracker, for carrying out physical activities to decrease obesity. The researchers were also able to find out how many students were actually wearing the activity tracker “You must have it on.’ […] some guys wanted to take it off, so we said, ‘Don’t ever take it off. It’s not going to do any harm.” [CHI] 80% of the participants wore the activity tracker for 32 days during the experiment. Reliability in the extent to which activities were recorded. The tracker activity can be argued that it is not reliable. The tracker cannot determine if the participant is actually carrying out a physical activity as they recognize any movement i.e. if the child was using a lot of hand gestures, rather than their body movement there will be no liability as the tracker will not be able to determine, and differentiate between the two meaning that the results could be slightly off.

Personal informatics helps people collect and reflect upon personal information to help them improve and grow by analysing the data captured. “Li et al [6] define personal informatics as systems that “help people collect personally relevant information for the purpose of self-reflection and gaining self-knowledge”. This research showed the important of collecting personal relevant information to self-reflect the participants activity tracking to allow them to gain self-knowledge of the process. Student engagement is another limitation as some lost their activity tracker. This can be argued to be a low amount of participant within the research as they needed a strong number to determine and gather results. “After just a day, one child lost their activity tracker. The teacher decided to make an example of them and their activity tracker was not replaced.” If all the students lost the activity tracker the experiment would have been a total loss, this would have limited the ability to gather data.

Participants allowed validity in the conclusion of the research. The use of participant made the research more reliable as the researchers were able to test what will happen and gather data which can be used to analyses the key aspect of the research.

The research was mainly aimed to view the feedback of the deployed system and record the human interaction of the interface design. “As HCI researchers our academic interest was in the design and deployment of these technologies within this complex interplay of stakeholders.” [CHI] therefore main reason for carrying out this research was to see the way in which the participants were using the device to interact. Likewise, another limitation can be that the participants are not interested and engaged within the research. This can sabotage the research as they may not be willing to commit and carry out any physical activities which will cause the results to be unreliable. Children’s cannot be monitored outside of school hours meaning that they can do whatever they like, they can refuse to wear the activity tracker which will also mean that the results will not be reliable as some students will commit and wear them outside of school hours. Changing the technology which is used can affect the user, whereby the way they use the device can affect the outcome of the research. The participant may not wear the device as instructed which will affect the results gathered. Longitudinal method is the research technique for the interaction model.

What assumptions underlie the use of the method(s)

Assumptions about an object under study can influence research in many ways. These preconceptions play a huge role in the research’s perspective, and can influence the research purpose. The qualitative research carried out at the beginning of the research created an idea within the researches mind, as the aspects from the background research helped determine aspects within the research, and impacted the way the research was conducted. Philosophical assumptions are “theoretical framework used by researchers to collect, analyze and interpret the data that is collected in a particular field of study.” [8]. It establishes the background which was used for coming to conclusion or a decision.

Does the paper demonstrate methodological rigour?

“Lincoln and Guba describe a series of techniques that can be used to conduct qualitative research that achieves the criteria they outline.” [9] The credibility within the research is established throughout the paper. They have conducted background qualitative research that achieves the criteria which the researchers are outlining. The qualitative research conducted involved utilizing different data sources within the same method to generate credibility and validity throughout the research. Transferability was also a technique used within the uses of conducting qualitative research. Showing that the findings have applicability within other contexts i.e. the study being used within a different context.

Credibility - confidence in the 'truth' of the findings [6] “Future policy and research efforts to promote physical activity should begin well before adolescence, and should include both boys and girls”. [2] The researches took this aspect into deliberation when conducting the research.

Transferability - showing that the findings have applicablity in other contexts [6]

Likewise, another research paper was emphasized regarding the QS (Quantified self) movement. “The QS movement has individual dispersed across the world— “Self-quantifiers” or “Quantified-selfer”—who are not only producing troves of data by virtue of simply doing about their daily business,

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My Academic Research in Critical Awareness of Issues Surrounding Current Research in HCI. (2022, August 12). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 1, 2024, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/my-academic-research-in-critical-awareness-of-issues-surrounding-current-research-in-hci/
“My Academic Research in Critical Awareness of Issues Surrounding Current Research in HCI.” Edubirdie, 12 Aug. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/my-academic-research-in-critical-awareness-of-issues-surrounding-current-research-in-hci/
My Academic Research in Critical Awareness of Issues Surrounding Current Research in HCI. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/my-academic-research-in-critical-awareness-of-issues-surrounding-current-research-in-hci/> [Accessed 1 Mar. 2024].
My Academic Research in Critical Awareness of Issues Surrounding Current Research in HCI [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Aug 12 [cited 2024 Mar 1]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/my-academic-research-in-critical-awareness-of-issues-surrounding-current-research-in-hci/
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