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Perception Of Prison Recreation Club Members On The Factors Affecting The Implementation Of Recreational And Sports Activities

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It is well established that the effective utilization of human resources is a key element in the management of any custodial institution. The manner in which prison staff are recruited, trained and rewarded, as well as their sports and recreation activities, will have a major impact on their health, the manner in which they conduct their duties, as well as the commitment and professionalism they bring to their work [IDD],n.d)

Sports and leisure activities of convicts had been a topic of interest to many of the researchers worldwide, but the Sports and leisure activities of the Correctional officials who form the back bone of the Correctional service system remains yet to be deeply researched upon. [IDD], n.d)

Maldives correctional Service was formed in the year 2013 by the then President H.E.Abdulla Yameen Abdulla Gayyoom under the Prisons and Parole Act 14/2013.The responsibilities mandated to Maldives correctional Services are as follows.

  • To operate the Maldivian prison System according to solid procedures
  • To build a safe and secure prison environment for offenders
  • To provide trainings to offenders in order to teach them various skills
  • To help offenders to reform and encourage them to return to the society as a worthy citizen after being released from the custody
  • To compile procedures to serving sentences as per the court ruling
  • To compile procedures and arrange detention caters for offenders or persons remanded to appear in court in future or held in custody for the duration of an investigation of an institution with authority.

(2017 – Prisons at Maafushi, Asseryi and Male, detention centre at Hulhumale and Ahuluveri Marukazu rehabilitation centre for those scheduled for parole are Maldives Correctional Service institutions; pre-trial detention centre at Dhoonidhoo and custodial centre at Male are Maldives Police Service institutions.)

Prison Recreation Club is a Non-Governmental Organization registered in the year 2017 in the Republic of Maldives. The aim is to organize and host sports, recreational and social activities for the Officials of the Maldives Correctional Service. The six Prisons in which the Prison Recreation Club is functioning are Maafushi prison, ESG, Male’ prison, Head office, Hulhumale prison and Asseyri prison.

Literature Review

Like culture and art, recreation, leisure and sports activities play an important role in communities. Their many benefits include improving the health and well-being of individuals, contributing to the empowerment of individuals, and promoting the development of inclusive communities (Khasnabis C, Heinicke Motsch K, Achu K, et al., 2010.)

The types of recreation, leisure and sports activities people participate in vary greatly depending on local context, and tend to reflect the social systems and cultural values. (Khasnabis C, Heinicke Motsch K, Achu K, et al., 2010.)

The idea of creating facilities to improve the health and recreation of prison employees was present almost since the Interwar period in Poland. One of the first mutual initiatives of prison staff was the institution “Our House”, which in 1927 was renamed the Construction Committee of Health and Medical Resort Houses (Rejzner. A, Kultura f , polskim 1931)

There is no doubt that numerous attempts were undertaken to initiate and conduct sports and recreational club activities for prison staff, as it has been reflected by the examples. But in most cases they did not reach a wide spectrum, just remaining as local projects. (Rejzner. A, Kultura f, polskim 1931).

In order to understand the factors that affect the implementation of the Sports and Recreation activities of Prison Recreation Club, this topic was selected for research.


  1. To find out the geographical factors that affect the functioning of Prison Recreation Club
  2. To find out if shortage of funds is a factor that affect the functioning of the club.
  3. To find out the support systems for the Club from within the country
  4. To find out other factors that restrict the functioning of the club
  5. To find out the possible solutions for the problems

How the information is collected

The Review of Literature was done through extensive analysis and critical assessments of various articles, Research studies and Reports available in the internet and also based on the reports of the Correctional service System, Maldives.

Research Strategy: Surveys, Focus group discussions will be the research strategies used in this study

Time Horizon for the study: This will be a cross sectional study

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Research Instruments/Techniques and Procedures used; Primary Quantitative Data will be collected from the members of the club using structured questionnaires. Questionnaire will be prepared based on the analysis of literature reviewed. Questionnaire will be piloted, and based on the same questionnaire will be revised.

Secondary data for the study was collected from journals, websites, and research reports. Qualitative data for the study will be collected suing Focus Group Discussions.

Based on review of literature the conceptual frame work has been developed for this research. The unique geographical distribution of the Islands of Maldives has given the country a place in the Small Island Developing State (SIDS) classification of The United Nations. The SIDS classification came about with the recognition that a distinct group of countries faces specific economic, social, and environmental vulnerabilities due to their inherent characteristics. (Asian Development Bank Report, 2015). So this unique geographical feature could also be a factor that can affect the functioning of the Prison Recreation Club as it functions in four different Islands of Maldives and its tournaments also are conducted in different Islands. Reports of Asian Development Bank on Maldives reiterates the point that remoteness is also a disadvantage for domestic connectivity, due to high transport costs and limited accessibility to international and domestic markets. (Asian Development Bank, 2015). Another major factor identified from review of literature is that the sole finance for the functioning of the Prison staff clubs were from the contribution or subscriptions from the members which made restrictions in the club activities (Naukowe P, 2016). Research in other world countries shows that it is difficult to make a clearly positive assessment of the activities of prison employees in the field of recreation and sports. And that the Recreation and Sports clubs formed by Prison staff were not centrally directed, but they were appreciated, approved and supported by the Concerned Department heads. Hence that also has been identified as a factor that can affect the functioning of the club. These factors were hence identified as problems that could be identified by the Club members in the functioning of the Prison Recreation Club.

Key Terms

Factors: In this study, the term Factors includes geographical factors, financial factors, social support as well as other factors received or not received by the Prison Recreation Club

Perception: In this study the factors that are considered by the Prison Club members as affecting the functioning of the Club is considered as Perception.

Affecting; In this study, the factors that negatively affect the functioning of the Prison Recreation Club is assessed.

Research Methodology

Research Design: Descriptive Research Design in the form of Cross sectional study will be used for this research study as the research is preplanned and structured in design and hence the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.

Purpose of Research

This study aims at identifying the problems in implementing the Sports and recreational activities of the Prison Recreation Club of The Republic of Maldives, as perceived by the members. The results will help not only to identify the problems but also to quantify the possible solutions as perceived by the members which can be presented for implementation to the higher authorities.

  • Sampling Plan
  • Population: Members of Prison Recreation Club from all the offices where the Club functions in The Republic of Maldives.
  • Sampling frame : All Members of Prison Recreation Club from all the offices where the Club functions in The Republic Of Maldives
  • Sampling unit : Each member of the Prison recreation Club of the sampling frame will be a sampling unit
  • Sample Size: As the population size is 432 the sample size is calculated as 204 with a confidence interval of 95% and margin of error as 5%.

Sampling Design: Simple random sampling in which every member and set of members has an equal chance of being included in the sample will be used in this research study. In order to randomly select the samples, the names of all the members will be written on a piece of paper and depending on the sample size required, that many number of lots will be taken and those selected forms the sample for the study.

Research Procedure; After identifying the sample for the study and getting their consensus, the researcher will meet each respondent as per their convenience (in the office) and explain about the study and the questionnaire. And the questionnaire will handed over to them. The researcher’s phone number will also be given to them so as to clarify doubts if any that may arise while filling the questionnaire. The filled in questionnaire will be collected after two weeks. The received data will be coded for easy analysis. Focus Group Discussions will be conducted in order to get in-depth information about the topic of research.

Data Analysis & Interpretation: The univariate analysis using Measures of Central Tendency will be used for analyzing this study. Graphs and Figures will also be incorporated so as to exhibit data. A transcript of the discussion and a summary of the conclusions that can be drawn from the focus group discussions will form part of the research report.

Research reliability and validity

Inter rater reliability test will be done by assessing selected respondents by two different assessors and the extent of difference between the two assessment will be assessed.

Concurrent validity will be done wherein two groups of people will be tested at the same time.


  1. IDD. Challenges to effective prison governance in South Africa. Retrieved from
  2. Maldivian Correctional Service Retrieved from
  3. ICPR. World Prison Brief Data. Retrieved from
  4. Khasnabis C, Heinicke Motsch K, Achu K, et al., editors. Community-Based Rehabilitation: CBR Guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. Community-Based Rehabilitation: CBR Guidelines.
  5. Rejzner A, Kultura fizyczna w polskim… [Physical Culture in the Polish …], p. 17, “Przegląd Więziennictwa Polskiego” [“Overview of Polish Prisons”] 1931, No. 6, p. 3. 54 Renata URBAN most suitable working conditions, pay, protection in case of illness and inability to work.
  6. Asian Development Bank Maldives: Overcoming the Challenges of a Small Island State Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2015. 1. Economic development 3. Maldives I. Asian Development Bank The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian…/172704/maldives-overcoming-challenges-small-island-state.pdf.
  7. Chapter 4 Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development business and management researchers do not agree about one best philosophy (Tsoukas andKnudsen 2003).
  9. NAUKOWE P, Akademii im,. Długosza J, Częstochowie K F (2016,). Recreational and Sports Activity of Prison System Employees in Poland in the Interwar Period., XV, nr 4, s. 51–68 .
  10. Statistics How to.
  11. Say lord Org .Analysis of Survey Data. Retrieved from

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Perception Of Prison Recreation Club Members On The Factors Affecting The Implementation Of Recreational And Sports Activities. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from
“Perception Of Prison Recreation Club Members On The Factors Affecting The Implementation Of Recreational And Sports Activities.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022,
Perception Of Prison Recreation Club Members On The Factors Affecting The Implementation Of Recreational And Sports Activities. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 15 Aug. 2022].
Perception Of Prison Recreation Club Members On The Factors Affecting The Implementation Of Recreational And Sports Activities [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Aug 15]. Available from:
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