As we know that Artificial Intelligence and disruptive technologies like Robotics tend to have a significant impact on the development of humanity today, Muller and Vincent C. (2020) aim to find answers to the problems associated with systems built using these technologies. The authors talk about ethical issues that arise with the use of these technological systems, their impact on privacy and surveillance, behavioral manipulation, and much more. The increasing inclusion of these advanced technological systems in the real-world will demand planning and enforcement of various policies to refine the law which is easier said than done.
The latest EU policy that focuses on ‘trustworthy AI’ is one such example of a policy that acts as a good first step in the refinement of ethical and lawful usage of various disruptive technologies. The usage of surveillance data enhances the overall soundness of military operations and regulation on privacy at the individual as well as state-level turns out to be an incredibly difficult act. Thus, learning from the traditional problems faced can better help improve the overall conditioning of law and order using artificial intelligence.
Ali (2020) considers the cyber domain to be the battlefield of advanced technologies made up of AI, quantum computing, machine learning, etc. and states that the opaqueness of such technologies may disrupt the accomplishment of military objectives by the key decision-makers. The author insists on completely understanding the process behind how such a complex technological system makes decisions as otherwise, it may never fulfill the mental requirements, and certainly lead to disastrous consequences. The combination of Quantum Computing (QC) and Quantum Information Science (QIS) with artificial intelligence and machine learning is known as battlefield singularity from national security and armed conflict standpoint.
The battlefield singularity is a concept that revolves around the enhanced ability of artificially intelligent systems than human decision-making capability which can prove to be decisive in scenarios of conflict. The concept of proportionality which is associated with injury to civilian populations, loss of life, and property damage in case of hostilities, has also been talked about in the article and the usage of AI, QC, and ML-based weapons to justify the concept of proportionality in such scenarios is what raises concern on the usage of such technological advancements.
Ivey (2020) has discussed the ethical lessons learned in the national security law during the 18 years after the incident of 9/11 and how these lessons can be applied in the future by the national security lawyers while incorporating artificial intelligence in the planning process. The author focuses on the practical aspects of AI that must be considered by national security lawyers before advising their clients to ensure that ethical boundaries are being followed. Three such practical aspects that the author has suggested are predictability, accountability, and controlled human control, and these should be incorporated at any cost by the national security lawyers. The prior knowledge of adversaries that may arise on the battlefield can be extremely helpful in following the ethical boundaries in AI hence learning about the technology, and defining terms and standards may help the national security lawyers keep their clients under ethical boundaries.
Kechedji, Bojovic, and Cvorovic (2018) talk about the influence of AI on foreign policy and security. The authors bring attention to the fact that machines are not humans, thus, lack the differentiation between what is right, and what is wrong. That means international organizations and world powers must incorporate AI standards to improve the law and security-based decisions. The vulnerability of AI applications towards cyber-attacks raises concerns about accountability, transparency, and ethical considerations. Lastly, implications of AI on national and international security are severe hence investing in the AI can greatly help strengthen the foreign policy and security of any country all over the globe.