“Community service organizations are those organizations, whose primary objectives are social rather than economic. The core of the sector includes charities, religious organizations, arts organizations, community organizations, campaigning organizations, trade unions, and other not-for-profit organizations” (Hudson Mike, 2009, p. xvii). “Usually referring to organisations that work with a confined local or regional focus. Community organisations may have a legal status or a constitution but there are numerous groups, which have neither.” Howieson, Brian & Julie, Hodges 2014, p.124)
In the private sector, Both suppliers and customers work through an uncomplicated process. Goods and services are offered by suppliers and customers pay the price to purchase it like, Sally’s Lawnmowing Supplies might be a good example. While, in the public sector, the government along with local authorities are the suppliers of public service, which in return leads to the change in government by voters, depending on which government will work for them with valuable programs that may include taxation and public services like, Australian Taxation Office The third sector, however, works differently as there is no monetary transaction for the services provided. Organizations are funded by donors for the required services. the most notable examples include Indigo Foundation, Amnesty International (Australia). (Hudson Mike,2009,p 16-17)
Volunteerism and community participation give advantages to both groups and volunteers themselves. Volunteerism promotes sense of belongingness within community as Collaborative tasks can even increase prosocial behavior across previously delineated group lines by invoking identification with a larger superordinate ingroup (Dovidio et al, 1997 ).there are some benefits for volunteers as it provides opportunity to promote and enhance skill and provide services that once may not have been able to provide previously and benefit for career enhancement a key outcome for volunteers.
Accountability refers to being answerable to stakeholders for the actions of the organization, whether by internal or external initiation.(Christensen and Ebrahim.2006,p. 195-209). There are various bodies working together for the third sectors so they are accountable in various ways to stakeholders. Members, service users, funding bodies, individual donors, staff and volunteers all have different claims on a third sector organization. There are a lot of opportunities for the managers in the third sector as the can guide the choices for directing future priorities and investments if there’s a financial crisis. Every organization can create their own criteria for allocating resources that are well suited to their circumstances so that it is easy to be accountable for when the time is right. The increasing competition among the donors and the members creates a risk of funding. There are often times when there is a powerful influence of members on the organization which can change the priorities of how the CSO needs to perform.
Commitment to a set of core values is a defining characteristic of many third sector organizations involved in the delivery of complex human services (Frumkin and Andre-Clark 2000, p. 142) Values are essential for the success of any organization as it includes the principles of the organization. It represents what the organization is all about to customers, also it guides future generations about the leadership that is required to direct the company to a better path. People who share certain values can end up in the same team working for a particular community and contribute to the organization’s values and mission statement. There is always an opportunity to bring a positive change in the values of the company in order to provide the best services. This can also cheer up the people working for the organization to gear up things as per their feel right. In order to chase the values set by the organization, it is required to do more with less as the pressure to outperform has increased with high standards set by many organizations.
Boards of third sector organizations are a coalition of people, often from different backgrounds and with different motives, who join together to provide organizations with governance. They have to work as a team to deliver the special roles that only a board can provide (Hudson Mike,2009,p.48)One of the key challenge faced by Governance to retain the volunteers especially who are working in as board members as they are most experience and skill resource of the organization (KENNETH N. DAYTON, 2001, p.5).In fact they are the lifeline of CSOs and are responsible to decide the organization’s mission, goals, and strategies. They also assure the organization with funding and meeting with potential donors in order to meet the challenges set. If the organization is thinking about capital campaign, then adding volunteers as influencers can lead to a productive path. On the other hands it an opportunity to meet the organizations goals with more experience team with efficiently and effectively and also it is an opportunity to attached more skillful team members how to share same goals and values which leads organization with more option to choose from which ultimately crease a healthy competition.
Management is responsible for developing strategies and for implementing it once it is agreed by the board (Hudson, Mike, 2009,p.55). When it comes to the approach, involving volunteers can impact in engaging more diverse range of required skills, and knowledge. It can raise awareness and reach out to more beneficiaries. The right approach within the management for volunteers can create a huge impact on the wellbeing of individuals leading to the wellbeing of the community, and improve the ways to handle a potential opportunity in the market but it also difficult for the management to provide training to large number of volunteers due to high turn over rate it affects the performance of the organization in achieving goals due to lake skilled human resource.
- Hudson, Mike 2009, Managing Without Profit : Leadership, Management & Governance of Third-Sector Organisations in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney
- Howieson, Brian & Julie, Hodges 2014, Public and Third Sector Leadership : Experience Speaks, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley
- Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Validzic, A., Matoka, K., Johnson, B., & Frazier, S 1997,
- Extending the benefits of recategorization: Evaluations, self-disclosure, and helping. Journal of Experimental vol. 33,no. 4,pp.401–420, viewed 21 August 2019, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022103197913275?via%3Dihub
- Christensen, R. A. & Ebrahim, A 2006, How Does Accountability Affect Mission? The Case of a Nonprofit Serving Immigrants and Refugees. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 17:2 pp195–209, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 195-209, viewed 22 December 2006, DOI: 10.1002/nml.143
- Frumkin, P, & Andre-Clark, 2000, When missions, markets, and politics collide: Values and strategies in the nonprofit human services. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 29, no.1, pp. 141-163, viewed 1 March 2000, https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291S007
- KENNETH N. DAYTON 2001, independent sector,governance is governance, viewed 2001, < http://cardinalboardservices.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/governance_is_governance.pdf>