The Operational Framework
In the diagram below, Hannah Arendt’s concept of the “right to have rights” appears in the middle, topmost part of a square that encloses what defines the “right to have rights”. The Uyghurs, being that they are deprived of their right to religious freedom, are considered stateless given that an individual is a citizen if – and only if – one is part of a political community and is practicing their rights (Degooyer, 2018). The PRC serves as the government whose duty is to uphold and protect these rights, and whose omittance, therefore, renders a citizen stateless (Birmingham, 2006).
Hannah Arendt’s concept of “the right to have rights” begins with givenness and natality as the basis for the right to have rights, and carries on to the concept of common responsibility, making all actors accountable for safeguarding and securing rights, overall, changing the conception of citizenship and the dialogue of human rights. The diagram moves on to a reconstructed conception of citizenship that acknowledges statelessness and ends with ensuring “the right to have rights”. II.4 Methodology
The researchers are mimicking the methodology used by Peg Birmingham in her work Hannah Arendt and Human Rights: The Predicament of Common Responsibility (2006) in which she sifted through and analyzed the different publications, from books to essays and articles of Hannah Arendt to concretize the concept of “the right to have rights”. The researchers are patterning this methodology in collecting data from different credible sources regarding the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China, and are sewing the data together with Hannah Arendt’s concept of “right to have rights”.
Given that the researchers are limited in quite a number of areas, credible and official documents and their analysis or secondary data analysis are primary sources and methods used for this research. The issue of the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China has been going on for quite some time and is still currently ongoing, changing with added data and different perspectives. There are only a handful of resources possible other than that of secondary data from documents, articles, and journals to analyze, thus, document analysis as a method of research will aid in defining, outlining, and contextualizing standpoints, making statements clearer.
In order to elaborate and expound on certain ideas in Hannah Arendt’s concepts and other human rights concepts in general, the researchers are using a historical approach. The researchers are using different works from various authors and analyzing these in order to compare concepts and interpretations. This approach is being used to contextualize definitions and readings to better communicate what the authors were trying to convey. Similar to the methodology of Hannah Arendt, the researchers are using certain events and cases in history to compare and outline to further bridge ideas. Alongside this, the method is also used to give an origin and historical background to the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China to be able to better assess their situation and how their predicament came to be.
For this paper, the researchers are using a qualitative approach. Statistics are rarely used in this research other than as a point of reference to factual data that will be used to support claims. The research mainly focuses on a scientific method of observation to gather information and non-numerical data. It rather refers to definitions, descriptions, concepts, ideas, and an analysis and interpretation of documents and statements.