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Volleyball: History, Rules And Peculiarities

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Volleyball is an old and historic sport that was created in the 19th century. It is a worldwide sport today with millions practicing it each day. In the past few years volleyball has become almost as popular as basketball and football. In fact it used to be called mintonette before its name was changed to volleyball. Volleyball is a respected sport all around the world, it is played in the Olympics and it has its own volleyball league called FIVB. It is played with six players per team that change positions throughout the game. ( The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Volleyball is a pretty simple games but there are many ways you can get a foul some of which can lead to a yellow or red card. There are numerous common fouls that everyone has done at least a couple of times. It is considered a foul for a team to touch the ball more than three times before giving it to the other team and it is also considered a foul to catch the ball in a game. It is considered a foul for the same player to touch the ball two consecutive times and it is also considered a foul to touch the net will throwing the ball. It is considered a foul to help another player in throwing the ball and it is also considered a foul when a player enters the other team’s court when they are ‘in play’. It is considered a foul if the server serves the ball 8 seconds after the referee has blown the whistle and it is also considered a foul to touch the outside zone while the server is executing the serve. It is considered a foul if a player hits the ball in the opponent’s court when it is the first shot in a play and it is also considered a foul for a player to hit a the ball when it he is touching the outside of the court. There are of course more serious fouls that can lead to the player getting a yellow or red card. A player can get a yellow card if he offends the referee in an inappropriate way, or messes with the net out of anger or refuses to give the ball back to the other team or physical aggression. A player can get a red card if he repeats any of the previous behaviors more than two times in one game or if a player is rude of the other players and/ or the referees. (strength-and-power-for-volleyball) (Rules of Volleyball) (Hertogh, 2016) (6 THINGS YOU DIDN’T KNOW ABOUT VOLLEYBALL PENALTY CARDS)

There are thousands of exercises used to train athletes and make them better at volleyball. Players can improve their volleyball shooting skills either on their own or with a partner. You can improve your shooting skills by practicing passing to a wall, this is very effective as it can be repeated as many times as needed to get a hang of the ball and it can be done continuously, as it greatly improves performance in a game. You can also improve your shooting skills by practicing the snap which is a drill done by holding the ball in you non writing hand and placing your hand in front of your body with quite amount of space between you and the hand holding the ball, and then bringing the ball next to your face and opening it wide, then slapping/ hitting the ball as hard as you can, this helps improve strength is shooting and is especially effective in beginners. You can also improve your shooting skills by practicing passing to yourself but without a wall and you can do that by standing up and placing your hand with the ball above your face to practice passing it up and then rebounding it back, this is helps you gain better control of you pass making it also easier to control you hits. You can also improve your shooting skills by repeating the last exercise but with lying your back on the floor and bending your knees, this exercise also helps the player gain better control of the ball while in the game. You can also improve your shooting skills by practicing your serves by going to an empty large space or a volleyball court, and throwing the ball in the air while jumping to slap/ hit it very hard across the court to land in the opponent’s court, this is very important as serves can be crucial for scoring and for practicing shooting skills. You can also improve your shooting skills by having a partner with you to practice passing to each other over the net to increase you control over the ball. You can also improve your shooting skills by having a partner to try to defend the ball while you try to attack and shoot in order to improve you shooting and attacking skill, while also becoming aware on how players can defend your shots. You can also improve your shooting skills by having a partner to practice with consistent passing which is passing for prolonged amount of time non-stop to improve the control of the ball, your position and footwork. You can also improve your shooting skills by having a partner to practice with a reactivity exercise that includes one of you giving your back to the other and the other will shoot him the ball, and when he hears that the ball has been shot he will turn to pass the ball back, this exercise will shorten the time you take to react to the ball and improve you passing and shooting skills. You can also improve your shooting skills by having a partner to practice hitting and snapping with, first both players will stand facing each other and then the will continue hitting and snapping to each other to develop their attacking, hitting and shooting skills. (VOLLEYBALL PARTNER DRILLS) (Whitney, 2019) (One Man Volleyball Drills You Can Do at Home) (Volleyball Hitting Drills)

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There are many different game plans used by couches worldwide and one of the most popular among them is the 5 – 1 offensive game plan. The 5 – 1 offensive game plan is designed to have five hitters and only one setter, which allows the hitters to get used to the setter since there is only one. In the 5 – 1 game plan the setter can be either in the front row or the back row. In the beginning of the game the setter will be on the right in the middle and after the opponent has served each player will go to their place. During the game the players mostly try to make sure that the setter doesn’t receive the first pass or the serve because that will require the libro to step in as a setter. The setter’s role is to try and open up many opportunities for the hitters to score and is crucial to the game, this is why the hitters in the 5 – 1 game plan try to make sure that he is always in play. Hitters are mostly responsible for attacking the opponents, but they also have blocking and passing responsibilities. (The 5-1 Volleyball Rotation Explained (Including Diagrams), 2018) (Basic Descriptions of Volleyball Positions)

One of the greatest volleyball games was the 2018 FIVB final between Poland and Brazil. In the beginning of the game the teams were neck to neck when one advances one point the other does too. Later Poland started pulling ahead by a point then by two points, until Poland maintained a lead of four points, the Brazil started catching up slowly, until they both reached to 24 points, and they kept staying neck to neck until Poland won the first game with 28 points to 26 points. Poland’s team has strategized, to have a very strong front row which was clear because their coach has placed three front attackers between the six players. The front row in Poland’s team would always shoot just over the net to make it harder for Brazil to intercept and send the ball back. Poland’s back row and especially server would shoot to the back of Brazil’s court also making it hard for them to intercept the ball, however this caused them quite a few faults as the ball would go out of play/ outside the court causing Brazil to gain a point. Poland’s triangular formation had a weak spot in the middle that Brazil kept scoring into in the beginning of the game, and they also had a not very guarded/ protected back, which lead to brazil scoring into it frequently when they began to catch up. Poland’s coach had a strategy of having a very strong and heavily guarded front row which is shown by his decision to have three front row attackers. He also had plan to make the players in the front row close to the net, and for the players to shoot at the end of Brazil’s court or in the beginning (just over the net) of Brazil’s court making it very hard and tricky for Brazil to be able to block the ball. Brazil had a more compact triangular formation that didn’t have a strong front row, which is why Poland had pulled ahead in the beginning, so they strengthened their front row to be able to catch up. Brazil also tried to target Poland’s weak point the back of their court during serves, which almost lead them victory in the first game. I think Brazil’s original plan was adapted during the game when they realized they need to change some of the plan in order to be victorious. This is why after the time out with their coach they played better as they had started to focus on Poland’s weak spots and they strengthened the places Poland was scoring in.

Video recording of the game is vital in any sport as it helps the referees distinguish between balls that were too close to the edge of the court whether they are in or out. Video records are crucial especially in volleyball, since the balls move at a hundred kilometers per hour and in most plays are too close to the border to determine with the naked eye whether it is in or out. So video records and slow motion streaming helps referees determine whether or not the shot was a fault or not. However they aren’t used every time a ball goes out, because like that there would be no need for a referee, and the game would take too much time as it is very time consuming to check each play with the video record. This is why in sports the referee determines whether the ball was in or out, but if a couch or player disagrees they can challenge and then a slow motion video recording will play and it will determine if the ball was a fault or not.

Volleyball is a worldwide sport celebrated by thousands in each country, volleyball also is a great and noble sport that needs skill, strategy and practice. It is a complicated sport that only the most persistent excel at, other than that it needs physically exceptional humans that are strong and tall. Even if you don’t play it is entertaining to watch all those players coordinate, cooperate and strategize to ensure their team’s success.


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  2. 6 THINGS YOU DIDN’T KNOW ABOUT VOLLEYBALL PENALTY CARDS. (n.d.). Retrieved from volley-pedia:
  3. Basic Descriptions of Volleyball Positions. (n.d.). Retrieved from volleyballadvisors:
  4. Hertogh, J. D. (2016, August 15). What doe yellow cards mean in volleyball? How do they differ from the red cards? Retrieved from quora:
  5. One Man Volleyball Drills You Can Do at Home. (n.d.). Retrieved from ussportscamps:
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  7. strength-and-power-for-volleyball. (n.d.). Retrieved from Volleyball Violations:
  8. The 5-1 Volleyball Rotation Explained (Including Diagrams). (2018, June 8). Retrieved from volleyballexpert:
  9. Volleyball Hitting Drills. (n.d.). Retrieved from strength-and-power-for-volleyball:
  10. VOLLEYBALL PARTNER DRILLS. (n.d.). Retrieved from krossover:
  11. Whitney. (2019, March 30). Volleyball Drills to Do at Home Without a Net or Court. Retrieved from How They Play:

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