Why Do Students Dropout of School: Cause and Effect Essay

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School dropout is described as an act where students leave school before the completion of the program for which they are enrolled for unforeseen reasons Douglas & Garbe (2014). School dropout is one of the most disturbing acts which affect students academically, parents, schools, and the nation as a whole. Most researchers defined the phenomenon of dropout differently, according to Jamil et al (2010). School dropout is a term used for children who for any reason other than death, discontinued schooling and leave their education uncompleted.

The importance of education cannot be ignored in this ever-changing world. It is an established fact that many developed countries achieved their development due to their high-quality education system because quality education ensures quality individuals. Thus education is fundamental for every individual which is the basic unit of society, playing a vital role needed for healthy societies. Therefore, society is said to be unhealthy when a considerable percentage of its inhabitants are school dropouts.

Most researchers defined the phenomenon of dropout differently, according to Jamil et al (2010). School dropout is a term used for children who for any reason other than death, discontinued schooling and leave their education uncompleted. Basic education has gained central importance in the lives of students for achieving further higher education. This is the initial gateway for enhancing the literacy rate, and societies provide basic for Social, Political, and Economic Development.

Causes of school dropout

Children may drop out of school due to many reasons. Studies listed these reasons based on their social, political, cultural, economic, and environmental circumstances.

Fauzia, (2016) also forward that literacy, poverty, low level of motivation, lack of understanding, child labor, corporal punishment, teacher behavior, and the school environment are such factors that contribute to school dropout.

Therefore, the causes of school dropout can be grouped into the following; Environmental, Social, and Economic factors which are outlined below.

Environmental Factors

Some teachers did not care about the students or help them in any productive way, making most students lose interest in academic work, teachers need to use interactive teaching strategies to develop a positive relationship with their students.

Poor infrastructure of the school, such as students being congested in a classroom, made most uncomfortable and as a result, will make some students drop out if not rectified as soon as possible.

Inadequate security of students, whereby students are hurt without any help from authorities, will deter most students to stop school.

Lack of proximity of the school to the student, in some instances the site or location of the school are little far from the community, which makes some students feel reluctant to go to school if there is no means of transport.

Social Factors

Peer Pressure: some friends do influence their colleagues negatively and make them act exactly the way they act.

Pregnancy and parenthood: Teenage pregnancy can pose concerns for students trying to complete high school academic requirements. Nearly one-third of teen girls who drop out of school state early pregnancy and parenthood as the key reasons for their decision, according to TheNationalCampaign.org. Pregnant teens may feel embarrassed about going back to school, struggle with morning sickness or fatigue, and have difficulty keeping up with their classwork. Taking care of a baby is time-consuming, so many may not have the energy to complete school.

Boredom: Students often drop out of school due to apathy or boredom. Students often report that academic content isn't interesting and they don't have a personal connection with their teachers, according to an article in 'Psychology Today'. High school dropouts and students may have other alternatives that seem more appealing, such as getting a job or starting a career.

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High school students who aren't interested in going to college may not see the value of a high school education. Boredom is a problem that must be addressed by students, parents, school faculty, and education boards to see if better course offerings and more student-teacher interactions would help.

Academic struggles: High school students often drop out of school because they struggle academically and don't think they will have the credits necessary to graduate. Some high school students don't want to risk failing, which could mean summer school or another year of high school. High school students' academic problems often lead to a loss of scholarships or grants and may result in having to repeat classes to earn needed credits.

Economic Factors

Lack of parental support: The lack of parental involvement is a problem that often leads to higher dropout rates, especially among high school students. Parents play an important role when it comes to high school attendance. High school dropouts often have parents who weren't engaged or concerned with their academic success. If a parent doesn't encourage her child to stay in school, show interest in classes and teachers, communicate with teachers and administrators, or pay attention to homework assignments, the child may not see any reason to follow through with the coursework. When parents don't prioritize their child's high school education, the child may choose to drop out, according to an article on the United Way Website.

Money: Some high school students drop out because they want to work and earn money. They may need money to finance a car, pay for auto insurance, buy clothes or electronics, and pay for housing or support unhealthy addictions. Most high school students don't have the time and energy to go to school all day, complete homework assignments, and still work enough hours to support lofty expenses. Dropouts who are concerned about their immediate, short-term financial situation may see a full-time job as the best way to maintain the lifestyle they desire. (Malik et al, 2000)

Effects of school dropout

Unemployment: One way in which people are affected by their decision to drop out of high school is a greater chance of being unemployed. The unemployment rate for young high school dropouts was roughly 54% in 2017, according to a report from the Bureau of Labor. The same report states that the unemployment rate for those who merely completed high school was significantly lower, only 32%. (Stuart,2018)

Lower income: When high school dropouts do find employment, they earn, on average, significantly less than those who completed high school. A 2018 report from the Bureau of

Labor stated that high school dropouts in America earned a mere 73% of what their peers who completed high school earned. Of all the countries included in the report, the difference between these two groups was the largest in the United States (Stuart, 2018).

Incarceration: Incarceration in some sort of correctional facilities, such as a jail or juvenile detention center, is also a more likely scenario for high school dropouts. (Stuart,2018)

Missed opportunities. Another, less tangible consequence of school dropout of high school is missing all the different opportunities that come about as a result of not finishing school. High school is a good place to explore intellectual interests, play team sports and meet friends. By completing high school, students can also go on to a post-secondary school and further expand on those opportunities. Even if they choose not to, they leave that option open for later in life.

Single motherhood. Single motherhood is both a cause and a consequence of not finishing high school. Among women aged 16 and 24, high school dropouts were the group most likely to be single mothers, with 22.6% of this group being single mothers. Only 22.6% of women in this age group having a bachelor's degree were also single mothers. Additionally, most of the single mothers who did not finish high school were poor and radiant on government assistance to raise their children. (Sarah, 2001)

Prevention of school dropout

Monetary Assistance: Loan accessibility: Children who are from families that gain access to loans from banks or any other form of financial assistance are unlikely to be taken out of school. This affects those in rural areas as loan becomes difficult to access. Provisional assistance is an important intervention for school dropouts. There are some forms of assistance such as monetary, food, clothing, and many others which facilitate parents to send their wards to school.

Quality Intervention: Intensive care: It is important to improve monitoring, accountability measures, and motivation. Parents' involvement and frequent accurate information from school authorities are very imperative in intensive care. Monitoring is not only the factor that can be used to resolve the problem of school dropout under quality intervention rather community involvement can be used as a review. Also, community participation in school activities or collaboration between school authorities and the community as a whole can help increase enrollment in education and moderate dropouts as well as improve teachers' attendance.

Educate both parents and students on the need to complete school, and the effects of school dropout, and encourage them not to engage themselves to stay at home. There should be some measures to ensure good interpersonal relationships among teachers and students to make them have an interest in school and obtain the desire to be in school. Provision of basic needs to the students by parents which will make their outfit normal and have the wish to be in school. Government should collaborate with schools to organize scholarships for brilliant but needy students to motivate them.

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