Over the past two decades, research on gender issues in marketing and consumer research has grown exponentially. This special issue of Marketing Theory, along with the ongoing conference series of the Association for Consumer Research Gender, Marketing and Consumer Research, now approaching its tenth iteration, shows the continued interest in our disciplines in gender issues; positions this gender research within its wider humanities and social science context; and introduces the reader to the four papers in this particular issue. The paper argues that in marketing and consumer research, gender research has advanced from the margins to become a large body of work. That said, there is still substantial development opportunities where gender is concerned, and feminist research can provide new insights, criticisms, theories and approaches
To examine contemporary images of gender, an interpretive approach based on social psychology, feminist theory and art criticism is developed. A selection of advertisements from contemporary fashion magazines and catalogs is compiled to highlight common trends identified by studies on the portrayal of gender in advertising, using and building on visual analysis techniques. The body — and what it expresses — is a core place of interest, and debate focuses on how advertising is portrayed by female and male bodies.
When framed in a social science perspective, the conventions of art history offer unique contributions to the study of advertising and gender, which are well suited for researchers interested in consumer culture. Socalled ambush marketers are companies that use clever advertising imagery (and/or ad placement) to link their brand(s) to a major event without having to purchase the expensive rights fees that event properties often charge for official sponsorship status.This study uses an experimental design to investigate some of the marketing strategy's effects on ambush. The emphasis is on the potential impact of recency (ad exposure), as well as gender differences, memory, brand disposition, and behavioral intentions for products that are viewed as official sponsors.
Respondents (n‐215) were randomly assigned to classes that consider programming for Olympics overlap with ads for either official sponsors or ambush marketers. In their pretest sponsor recall or recognition levels, no statistically significant differences are observed between males and females, whereas recency of ad exposure is found to have a significant impact on the aggregate's post-test sponsor awareness. Significant gender differences are detected, however, in attitude toward the brand and purchase intentions for two of three product categories investigated, as females have higher mean scores for those two measures.
The consequences of these findings are discussed and supplemented by suggestions for event sponsors seeking to retain the interest of event sponsorships as well as protective promotional tactics to protect their official sponsors ' investments.