Illegal Immigration And Drug Trafficking: Implication Of Manpower Export

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It refers to people who have migrated to the country in violation of the country's immigration laws or who do not have legal residency to continue to live. The most common pattern of illegal immigration is the development of countries with low socioeconomic levels to more developed countries. This could lead to the risk of immigration detention or deportation or other sanctions. Some movements discourage the use of the term 'illegal immigration', often based on the argument that day-to-day behavior does not make people themselves illegal, but 'illegal immigration.' The study identified 124 countries where illegal immigration is strictly considered a crime. The countries involved in the investigation showed extensive punishment for undocumented immigrants, including deportation, fines, detention, community service and various prison terms. Depending on the circumstances of entry, the length of imprisonment may range from months to fifteen years. Undocumented entrants are exempt from punishment only if they seek asylum or are entitled to international protection. Crossing the restricted area is not the only way to the illegal immigration process. Sometimes a person enters a country legally but violates the terms and conditions of his visa and passport. If he stays overdue in the country of destination and exceeds the time allowed by law, it also illustrates illegal immigration.

Impacts of Illegal Immigration

Whether or not these foreigners cross the border legally, immigration does bring benefits to the national economy. However, in the pre-industrial period, environmental factors such as drought, unemployment, overpopulation, earthquakes or fatal diseases, pollution and the atmosphere made migration a problem for any developed or developing country.

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  • Poverty: There is no need to imply that illegal immigrants are always poor under national standards. The poorest segments of the developing world may lack the resources needed to carry out illegal cross-border attempts, or lack contact with friends or family already in the destination country. Illegal immigrants entering the country are looking for jobs that offer higher wages, and they can't even get paid in their own country. By hiring illegal immigrants, local citizens will lose their jobs because employers are more willing to get hired at a lower cost. Rising unemployment will lea
  • Overpopulation: Overpopulation occurs when population growth exceeds the affordability of a certain area or environment. A surge in population can cause problems such as pollution, water crises and poverty. The world population has grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to 6.7 billion today. A country already facing a demographic crisis could suffer further consequences from illegal immigration.
  • Increased crime and social ills: Crimes committed by illegal immigrants with a criminal background have led to an increase in crime rates. Such criminal activities may include smuggling drugs and stealing identity documents from citizens to enable them to find employment. Another impact is that they use social services such as schools and health insurance, and the government must bear the cost of using these services. Trafficking and exploitation also affect the country, as migrants smuggle people. Many people are smuggled into the country each year, and most of them have no legal documents or their documents and identification documents are smuggled by smugglers, especially women and children.
  • Increased government spending: In order to overcome the problem of illegal immigrants, the government must take strict measures to forcibly repatriate illegal immigrants to their home countries, resulting in increased costs.
  • Relations between nations will be affected: Due to the problem of illegal immigration, it may affect relations with countries with diplomatic relations, such as Malaysia and Indonesia. If illegal immigration causes problems in other countries, the countries involved will have an adverse impact on citizens and the country itself.

Illegal Immigration in Pakistan

In 2012, a Pakistani official claimed that five million illegal immigrants live in Pakistan.Since early 2002, Pakistan's government took steps to determine the number of illegal immigrants in its country. The National Alien Registration Authority (NARA) started registering illegal immigrants in January 2006. According to NARA, there were an estimated 1.8 million day crossers in Pakistan's commercial capital Karachi in 2007. Others believe that there may be about 3.35 million illegal immigrants in Pakistan As of January 2010, the number of illegal alimmigrantsiens in Karachi was estimated to be between 1.6 and 2 million. Thousands of nationals from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Somalia, Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Azerbaijan are illegally living in Karachi.This includes thousands of Muslim students from Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia studying in the Pakistani madrasahs,while thousands of women from Bangladesh and Burma are working as maids and prostitutes there; most of them are illegal aliens.According to some sources, thousands of radicals of Arab origin who entered the country illegally to fight in Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979, and later against the US-led invasion in October 2001, still remain in the country.Although the presence of illegal aliens in Pakistan is against the law, the Government of Pakistan did not make a serious effort to deport them until January 2010 when Pakistani Interior Minister Rehman Malik asked illegal aliens to either leave or register themselves with the department concerned, as a major crackdown would soon be initiated against them. This action was taken following the recent bomb attack and targeted killings of political activists in the city, against foreign militants operating in Pakistan.One of the important consequences of the Afghan conflict since the 1970s has been the massive inflow of the Afghan refugee population to the neighbouring Pakistan which in following years has brought about a number of demographic and security challenges to the Pakistani society. Therefore along with a number of factors, at this present juncture, Afghan refugees have also become a principal factor in determining Pakistan's Afghanistan policy.There are presently 600,000 illegal Afghan refugees living in different parts of Pakistan The chief commissioner of Afghan refugees in Pakistan stated.

Illegal Immigration in U.S

Research shows that illegal immigrants increase the size of the U.S. economy/contribute to economic growth, enhance the welfare of natives, contribute more in tax revenue than they collect, reduce American firms' incentives to offshore jobs and import foreign-produced goods, and benefit consumers by reducing the prices of goods and services.Economists estimate that legalization of the illegal immigrant population would increase the immigrants' earnings and consumption considerably, and increase U.S. gross domestic product.The illegal immigrant population of the United States peaked by 2007, when it was at 12.2 million and 4% of the total U.S. population. Estimates in 2016 put the number of unauthorized immigrants at 10.7 million, representing 3.3% of the total U.S. population.There were 11.6 million immigrants from Mexico living in the United States in 2017, and fewer than half of them (43%) were in the country illegally, according to Pew Research Center estimates. Mexico is the country’s largest source of immigrants, making up 25% of all U.S. immigrants.As President Donald Trump’s administration has taken a variety of steps to reduce the number of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. – including through the increase of law enforcement agents at the southern border.The population of unauthorized Mexicans in the United States declined by a quarter between 2010 and 2018, the new immigration figures show, amid stepped-up deportations and an improved Mexican economy that has encouraged many people to go home voluntarily. Considering the current situation the US also took an initiative as President Donald Trump administered to use a health-focused statute to swiftly remove migrants or asylum seekers who cross the U.S.-Mexico border illegally as part of efforts to stem the spread of coronavirus. The United States’ top public health official, to block people or goods from certain countries or places to prevent the spread of communicable diseases.

Drug Trafficking

Drug trafficking is a global illicit trade involving the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws.The countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are also adversely affected.In the majority of the countries, control and monitoring of the national drug supply and distribution channels, including precursors, are inefficient. This results not only in the ineffective control of pharmaceutical products, but also in the circulation of counterfeit medicines. Together these pose serious health and socio‑economic problems, they undermine law enforcement activities and confidence in public health services.

Drug Trafficking in Pakistan

Pakistan’s geographic location next to Afghanistan, the world’s largest producer of illicit opium, places the country in a vulnerable position in terms of drug trafficking. The patterns of illicit drug production and distribution have seen transitions as a result of social, economic and political developments in the region.Trafficking from Afghanistan to Balochistan is believed to take place through the Afghan provinces of Helmand and Nimroz to the Pakistani districts of Chaghi and Nushki. Here, the trafficking is facilitated by the remoteness and inaccessibility of these scantily populated regions. According to the UNODC Afghan Poppy Survey Report 2017, the poppy cultivation in Afghanistan has increased from 7,606 hectares in 2001 to 328,000 hectares in 2017. It is an established fact that some officials in the drug control agencies are involved in corruption. These in collusion with the drug peddlers not only give protection to the drug peddlers, but also help in transportation of narcotics..Another challenge is that around 3 million Afghan refugees settled in Pakistan. Due to the unbridled movement of these refugees in the country, they can easily roam around the entire country; thus not only is law and order jeopardized but illegal drug trafficking is also facilitated.

Drug Trafficking in U.S

Data on drug seizures at the U.S. border indicate an alarming volume of trafficking taking place in recent years. Since 2009, heroin seizures at the southwestern border have almost tripled.Mexican transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) continue to dominate the U.S. drug market. They transport illicit drugs north across the U.S.-Mexico border. Traffickers move drugs through ports of entry, concealing them in passenger vehicles or commingling them with licit goods on tractor trailers. Traffickers also rely on cross-border subterranean tunnels and ultralight aircraft to smuggle drugs, as well as other transit methods such as cargo trains, passenger busses, maritime vessels, or backpackers/'mules''. While drugs are the primary goods trafficked by TCOs, they also generate income from other illegal activities such as the smuggling of humans and weapons, counterfeiting and piracy, kidnapping for ransom, and extortion.Federal law enforcement has a number of enforcement initiatives aimed at countering drug trafficking, both generally and at the Southwest border. For example, the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF) program targets major drug trafficking and money laundering organizations, with the intent to disrupt and dismantle them.


A lesser known effect of tighter United States or Pakistan`s border control and increased undocumented immigration is the rise of the smuggling industry in Mexico and Afghanistan. To start, it is important to realize that tighter border controls. Immigrants come to the United States for a variety of reasons. Oftentimes they come as a result of the United States' demand for migrant labor, which pays more than the salaries they can receive at home. Furthermore, undocumented immigrants often times emigrate to the United States because they have many family members who already live there. Financial crunch and the level of unemployment in Afghanistan are some of the main reasons for such a large number of workers coming to Pakistan to earn a living as day crossers.In March 2012, Pakistan banned visa extensions for all foreigners. In September 2018, Pakistani prime minister Imran Khan made a surprise announcement pledging to grant citizenship to 1.5 million Afghan refugees resident in Pakistan. This promise, however, was not followed through. On the other hand,As stated in the White House Report on immigration, it is evident that both documented and undocumented workers and immigrants contribute to all walks of life, especially in the labor force. Moreover, evidence shows that as the number of immigrants increases, the United States economy continues to thrive as a result. That is why it is important that there are measures in place that provide undocumented immigrants living in the United States with a path to citizenship.Illegal immigration and drug trafficking work side by side.In the hope of seeking refuge in foreign countries, people are lured to smuggle drugs via illegal transportation systems.It is estimated through surveys that illegal immigration is a source of an economy boost as long as drug trafficking is eradicated or at least strict measurements are taken to minize it.

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