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Plant Biotechnology In Agriculture

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Introduction

“Bio-technology” refers to the area of study in which the living organisms are used to produce the useful products through the manipulation of genes.

‘Genetic engineering” refers to the process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by removing or introducing DNA. Rice genome has provided the foundation to improve the cereals. In parallel, novel plant transformation systems have been proposed, notably with regard to plastid transformation and the removal of selectable marker genes in transgenic plants.

Despite the plasticity contributing to diversity of plant genomes, the organization of genes is conserved within large sections of chromosomes. Indeed, this technological progress enables us to insert useful genes into cultivated plants at an incomparably fast rate and, doubtless, in a much more precise manner than with conventional genetic methods.

Plant Transformation

Genetic engineering allows to transfer the useful genes from one organism to another. After undergoing this process, the genetically modified organism (GMO) consists of the characters that were altered in laboratory. These techniques can be applied generally to all living species: bacteria, fungi, viruses, animals, and plants. Transformation techniques and search for new selectable markers: The deliberate incorporation of genes in the nuclear genome of the plants can be done by:

  • Biolistic technique
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens

The soil bacteria

Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the natural property of inducing tumors in certain plants by transmitting a plasmid (T-DNA). Biolistic technique- The interest of gene is coated with either the gold or tungsten particles and then are shot into the plant cell using the gene gun. Some cells are transformed i.e. they have integrated the gene of interest into their genome.

Engineering the nuclear genome without antibiotic resistance genes:

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To limit the presence of unnecessary gene in plant genome, there are several attempts to remove transferred DNA in transgenic plants. One of the way is to use the technique of using Cre-lox site-specific recombination system, which usually involves two steps.

  1. In transforming plants with a plasmid containing the transgene of interest and a resistance gene bordered by two lox sites.
  2. In a transformation with another plasmid containing the Cre gene encoding the recombinase.

Engineering the plastid genome

The advantages of Plastidial DNA transformation technique are-

  • The transfer of the desired genes solely via the female line (in most plant species, the pollen does not contain any plastids), thereby limiting the contamination of wild plants with transgenes carried on by pollen flow.
  • Very high levels of transgene expression in genetically engineered plants (indeed, each plant cell contains many hundreds of plastids).
  • Targeted homologous recombination into the plastid genome.

Plastidial DNA transformation Technique-

Fields of Application:

  1. Controlling plant development and yield. Biotechnology can also play an important part in improving crop yield. The success of current plant biotechnology is based on the hypothesis that resistance to herbicides, insects, and viruses can be obtained by inserting a limited number of genes into cultivated plants.
  2. Improving the tolerance of plants to biotic stresses. Genetically engineered drought- and salt-tolerant plants could provide an avenue to the reclamation of farmlands lost to agriculture because of salinity and a lack of rainfall. Feasibility of improving tolerance of plants to biotic stress by genetic engineering and also genetically adding the hormone- “gibberellin” which help in creation of the plant to tolerate even in bad weather.
  3. The plant as a factory to produce useful molecules. It is also concerned with remodeling components essential to animal and human health (essential amino acids, vitamins), plant metabolism rerouting for biodegradable plastic manufacture, or therapeutic proteins and enzymes.

Conclusion

Until today, there are many potentials that had encouraged the use of plant biotechnology. The transformation and breeding techniques had raised the use of transgenic plants in agriculture. This technology provokes in many reactions also for the future. With the help of this technology, it is possible to modify the plants and overcome the impossibilities. This helps in improving the nutritional value for both humans and animals, also encourage the new product in the industry with better and improved conditions. The modified plants can resist in any temperature, weather or any environment. Moreover, the biochemistry of plants and their genomes are more advanced with more knowledge of understanding.

In my opinion, this technology can improve the quality and many properties of the crops that are more nutritional value. With the transgenic crop, it is also possible to less use of the pesticides and herbicides. For example- “Golden rice” is the best example of transgenic crop.

References

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  19. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-9084(02)00013-5
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  22. https://onesearch.library.uwa.edu.au/permalink/61UWA_INST/c6psno/cdi_crossref_primary_10_1016_S0300_9084_02_00013_5

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Plant Biotechnology In Agriculture. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved October 4, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/plant-biotechnology-in-agriculture/
“Plant Biotechnology In Agriculture.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/plant-biotechnology-in-agriculture/
Plant Biotechnology In Agriculture. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/plant-biotechnology-in-agriculture/> [Accessed 4 Oct. 2022].
Plant Biotechnology In Agriculture [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Oct 4]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/plant-biotechnology-in-agriculture/
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