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Should Gene Modification Be Permitted In All Countries Of The World?

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Gene modification is the process of altering genetic structure of species. That has happened indirectly through controlled or selective plant and animal breeding for thousands of years. Now with modern biotechnology its much more efficient making it easier and faster to target a specific gene by genetic engineering for more precise alteration of the organism. This is usually achieved by the CRISPR-Cas9 method.

The CRISPR-Cas9 method consists of two main molecules that trigger a mutation in the DNA. They are an enzyme named Cas9 and a piece of RNA named the RNA Guide. Cas9 acts as a molecular separator where it can split two strands of DNA at a certain place in the genome so that the bits of DNA can be inserted or removed to make the transition happen. The gRNA consists of a small piece of pre-designed RNA sequence, typically made up of 20 bases long positioned within a longer RNA scaffold. The scaffold portion of the RNA attaches to the DNA and the pre-designed sequence navigates Cas9 to the correct part of the genome. It shows that the enzyme Cas9 slices at the correct point in the genome.

Advantages of Genetic modification in plants

As human populations growth and emerge as extra prosperous with an increased demand for food and protein, step-alternate upgrades in crop yield could assist growers to deal with the mission of global meals security. New technology which includes CRISPR are now being deployed to improve the nutritional profile of some crops producing better fibre wheat and healthier oils are near-time period examples two outcomes that would make a dramatic impact in regions around the world. By increasing crop yield each country can export their product to other countries and earn international exchange which help the countries economy.

Disadvantages of Genetic modification in animals and humans

Advantages of Genetic modification in animals and humans Humanity could develop a lot and benefit from gene modification in animals and humans. It could be used for improving the immunity of a human being and eradicate diseases. By genetically engineering immune cells to make more compelling antibodies, they have defended mice from a potentially lethal lung virus. The same strategy could work in humans against diseases for which there are no vaccines. Benefitting countries as they wouldn’t have to spend money on scientists and doctors for research to find antidotes and vaccines. Like now in 2020 were a global pandemic called corona virus also known as COVID-19 was just introduced. It has spread to more than 120 countries in the world with a death count of more than 5,500 people. Different countries have closed down schools, shops, and generally been in lockdown and been cleaning all public areas meaning that each government has been not only wasting money for their citizens and country to keep safe but have a lack in input as their not benefitting from the now closedown shops and schools and other areas. This could all be prevented in the future with genetic engineering.

“British company Oxitec has created genetically modified male mosquitoes that carry a “self-limiting gene”. When they are released into the wild and mate with females their offspring do not reach adulthood, so crucially do not contribute to the spread of the Zika virus. Other researchers are looking at using genetic modification to curb the spread of malaria.”

Malaria not only causes the loss of human life in these countries, but is also responsible for great economic loss in the form of decreased work force, increased health care costs and lower rates of tourism. So if scientists are able to genetically engineer female mosquitos to not get infected with plasmodium parasites then they will not get transmitted to humans through bite.

Gene modification could also benefit farmers and consumer markets by being used to produce pharmaceuticals to be used for other animals and humans, serve as a source of cells, tissue and organs closely matched to humans so that they may be able to be transplanted into humans with a decreased risk of rejection, produce high-value materials, such as those used for surgical sutures and personal protection devices, such as body armour for military and law enforcement use, provide more healthful or more efficiently produced food.

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“The first and only U.S. approved product from a GE animal is called ATryn. It is a human pharmaceutical developed to prevent blood clots. This drug is produced in the milk of GE goats”

With genetic modification on animals we can make more ‘useful’ animals and may have the potential to greatly improve the health and welfare of agricultural animals. GE animals may be disease resistant, parasite resistant, and withstand stress. The beneficial trait can likely improve their well being because they will be more productive. Genetic engendered animals have yet to be permitted into human food supply. There has been a lot of research and experiments going around the world.

“The Roslin Institute is working on GM chickens that contain an extra gene that interrupts the transmission of avian flu. Unlike a vaccination, the modification still protects the bird if the virus mutates.”

Disadvantages of Genetic modification in animals and humans

Genetically modified farms animals have too many risks. The transfer of genetic material from one species to another raises potentially serious health issues for animals and humans. It is also not proven yet that there is a risk that new diseases from genetically engineered animals could be spread to non-genetically engineered animals, and even humans. There is also big question mark for the long run effects not only to organism its happening but also to the consumer, they could be doing us more harm than good. There is also an argument to why genetic engineering exist when there is selective breeding which is just as effective plus with less risks.

In Australia there are about 1.4 million dairy cows and most go through this process called dehorning, meaning that they get their horn extracted because it’s harmful to the other animals around them. The process is very hard and painful scientists decided to breed a cow that would provide all dairy and have no horns. called TALENS, scientists took the DNA sequence that stops Angus cattle from growing horns and inserted it into the DNA of dairy cattle. In a lab two dairy bulls with no horns were born. The bulls, Buri and Spotigy were bred, raised and monitored by the University of California and their semen was kept for new generation.

It was a scientific breakthrough and a promise that gene modification could help all. But all the fame ended Dr. Norris from the food and drug administration wanted to check for any possible errors that happened through the process. The “precisely edited” cattle were no such thing — the DNA included a mistake. DNA from a type of bacteria — which was part of the gene-editing tools themselves — was accidentally inserted into the cattle’s DNA.This meant Buri was technically part bull, part bacterium. This even clearly demonstrates how gene modification cannot be trusted and unsafe.

If gene modification on humans was ever permitted it would be available only to the super rich who h hey will use in their advantage to make rich people genetically superior. even if the ultra-rich decided to access a ‘ genius gene, ‘ or one for extraordinary fitness or good looks, that’s not the way it works. While some diseases are caused by a single DNA mutation traits such as intelligence, height, strength, and longevity are associated with hundreds of genetic factors, and the influence of any one genetic difference is poorly understood. One gene is not equivalent to one trait.Making more than a handful of DNA modifications by gene editing will be impractical, and so far, big data methods have struggled to uncover a short list of mutations that would make one smarter, quicker or bigger. The nature of our physiology will in this case stand in the way of the vainest desires of mankind. So what if you chemically synthesized one instead of modifying one’s current genome you chemically synthesised one from scratch? DNA synthesis is the process of chemically stitching together DNA components in the lab, much like assembling letters in a printing press. And the challenges of converting synthetic DNA from the test tube into a viable fetus have yet remained unsolved.

The point is, the rich do not have to resort to science- solutions to surpass their fellow man. Thanks of greater access to quality medical services, nutritious food and less stressful lifestyles, the wealthy already benefit from longer life expectancies. Research shows that rising income disparity has worsened the inequalities between the wealthy and the poor in the health outcomes. The most visible manifestation of ‘ wealth care ‘ can be the benefits offered to VIP hospitals that is, ‘ very important patients. ‘ Hospitals and private practitioners in the US are increasingly offering concierge programs for deep pocket donors.

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Should Gene Modification Be Permitted In All Countries Of The World? (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 27, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/should-gene-modification-be-permitted-in-all-countries-of-the-world/
“Should Gene Modification Be Permitted In All Countries Of The World?” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/should-gene-modification-be-permitted-in-all-countries-of-the-world/
Should Gene Modification Be Permitted In All Countries Of The World? [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/should-gene-modification-be-permitted-in-all-countries-of-the-world/> [Accessed 27 Sept. 2022].
Should Gene Modification Be Permitted In All Countries Of The World? [Internet] Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Sept 27]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/should-gene-modification-be-permitted-in-all-countries-of-the-world/
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