The cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Human are not able to see small things with their naked eyes. So, in this particular lab, we are looking at the smallest part in the animal and plant. The smallest part of human body is, the cell and it is same goes to the plant. Animal cells and plant cells contain cell structures knows as organelles, which are designed to perform specific functions necessary for normal cell operations. For plant, we are looking at the structure or the anatomy of the onion cell. Then, for human cell, we are looking at the human inside mouth cheek cell. To make sure that our cell can be observed smoothly and without any problem, we must have the thin parts of the onion and tin part of human body. For this particular lab, we are using the epidermis tissue of the onion. We are focusing on the most thin parts of the onion because, we need to observed the structure of the plant cell. Using the epidermis tissue, we are easily to look and observed the plant cell. Both animal cells and plant cells have some similar organelles which are the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, and cell membrane. While both cells have some similar characteristics, they are also different . Using the light microscope and with the help of methylene blue, we are observing the structure of the plant cell. The epidermis cell has a rectangular cell wall that can protected the plant cell from anything that is unwanted. The rectangular structure that the plant cell has is for the plant safety. This is because, the cell wall will controlling all the things that is come in and come out from the plant. The plant cell wall for the epidermis is the most important parts because, the epidermis is the outer most layer of the plant. (Biologie.uni-hamburg.de, 2013)
Mitosis is one of the stages in the cell cycle where the chromosomes of a cell replicate and separate to eventually form two genetically identical cells. Unlike in meiosis, chromosome number is maintained in both daughter cells. Meiosis is come form eukaryotic cell division that produces haploid sex cells or gametes (which contain a single copy of each chromosome) from diploid cells (which contain two copies of each chromosome). We are looking at the mitotic process which is through five processes. We are using the prepared slide of onion mitosis . Mitosis is the thread of the DNA in process which can produced 2n or two daughter cell. Mitosis is the a type of the cell division which can build and maintain your body from the damaged that have been occur. In the mitotic phase, there are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase produced two daughter cell that can form a new cell that has its own DNA, nucleus and also its own cell wall. (Carter, 2014) (Kalatova B, 2015)
The first phase in the mitotic process is the prophase. The prophase is the phase where the DNA start to condense and the nucleus disappear.Then centrioles move to opposite poles. Next phase that occur in the mitotic process is the metaphase. The metaphase itself has change in position paired homologous chromosomes line up at cell ‘s equator or in the centre . After that, the centromere of the chromosomes will be pull by the spindle fibre to each opposite pole which is the anaphase. At the anaphase process, the chromatids will be independent since the other chromatids are at the other pole. Then, the last step of phase are the telophase. Telophase is the end or the complete phase for some phase. In the telophase process, the chromatids will have their own nucleus. This will form another two daughter cell after the truly complete phase where it will produce two daughter cell which have their own cell wall.(Maton A, 1997)
In this particular lab, we are looking at the structure of the cell plant. Plant cell have a rectangular shape and not flexible at all. We can see in this cell most clear with microscope under 40x magnification. The end of this experiment,we can see the process of mitosis in onion root. Prophase is where the chromosomes prepare itself to undergo the cell division process. Metaphase is where the chromosomes move to the centre of the cell. Anaphase is where the chromatids move to the opposite side of the cells.The final step is Telophase they are 2 sets of chromosome in each pole and the nucleolus re-appears
In conclusion, we could see that in this particular lab has show us the structure of plant cell. Also we know many specimens that cannot be seen with the naked eye because the specimens are smallest unit. I also can learn more about mitosis. We also know that mitosis has 4 phases which is prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Hence, I know how to findings all of the stages of this mitosis and how they are look like. I confirmed that I able to observe the four phases of mitosis in prepared slide based on the figures on the result.
- Yanagida, M.(2015). The Role Model Organisms in the History of Mitosis Research. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
- Pandey, T. (2017). What is the shape of cheek cells and how can you find out the shape of cheek cells? Quora
- Biologie.uni-hamburg.de. (2013). Plant anatomy. Hamburg: University of Hamburg