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What Are the Four Components of a Modern Computer?

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Computers are programmable electronic device that perform the information-processing cycle. They are integral to our daily lives and used by millions daily. You will as of now know merely can utilize a computer to type records, send e-mail, play recreations, and browse the Net. You’ll moreover utilize it to alter or make spreadsheets, introductions, and indeed video. A computer could be a programmable gadget that stores, recovers, and forms information. The term ‘computer’ was initially given to people (human computers) who performed numerical calculations utilizing mechanical calculators, such as the math device and run the slide show. The term was afterward given to a mechanical gadget as they started supplanting the human computers. Modern computers are electronic gadgets that acknowledge information (input), prepare that information, deliver yield, and store (capacity) the results.

There are four main components of a modern computer: 1) CPU; 2) main memory; 3) I/O devices; 4) system interconnection.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A CPU, in some cases alluded to as a computer’s brain, is the workhorse of the machine. It performs the calculations required by a framework, and can shift in speed. The work that a CPU does produce warm, which is why your computer contains a fan interior. A more effective CPU is vital for strongly computer work like altering high-definition video or programming complex software. The two ordinary components of a CPU incorporate the taking after: the number juggling rationale unit (ALU), which performs number juggling and coherent operations, and the control unit (CU), which extricates enlightening from memory and interprets and executes their registers (portion of the CPU; exceptionally quick; exceptionally restricted capacity).

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Main Memory

  1. Random-access memory (RAM) incidentally stores information and enlightening for the CPU volatile-contents eradicated after the computer is closed off permits CPU to get to or store information and enlightening rapidly through RAM’s memory address highlight recognizes and finds put away information comes within the frame of memory modules or memory cards RAM is temporary memory.
  2. Read only memory (ROM) uses to store manufacturer’s operating instructions. It cannot be erased or changed; keeps information even after unplugging the power.

The Input/Output Unit (I/O)

The term I/O is utilized to depict any program, operation or gadget that exchanges information to or from a computer and to or from a fringe gadget. Each exchange is a yield from one gadget and an input into another. Gadgets such as consoles and mouses are input-only gadgets whereas gadgets such as printers are output-only. A writable CD-ROM is both an input and a yield device.

  • Input unit. With the assistance of input unit information from exterior can be provided to the computer. Program or information is examined into fundamental capacity from input gadget or secondary capacity beneath the control of CPU input instruction. Case of input gadgets: Console, Mouse, Difficult disk, Floppy disk, CD-ROM drive etc.
  • Output unit. With the assistance of yield unit computer comes about can be given to the client or it can be put away in capacity gadget forever for future use. Yield information about the fundamental capacity go to yield gadget beneath the control of CPU yield instructions. Illustration of yield gadgets: Printer, Screen, Plotter, Difficult Disk, Floppy Disk etc.

System Interconnection

It is the direct connection of two or more IT systems for the purpose of sharing data and other information resources.


The modern computer is a very important factor in our lives, and we rely on it daily in all areas. The computer components and their functions that are explained in detail are the pillars that make the computer work.

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What Are the Four Components of a Modern Computer? (2022, October 28). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 30, 2023, from
“What Are the Four Components of a Modern Computer?” Edubirdie, 28 Oct. 2022,
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What Are the Four Components of a Modern Computer? [Internet] Edubirdie. 2022 Oct 28 [cited 2023 Mar 30]. Available from:
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