This book centers around U.S. foreign policy towards the important locales of the world which incorporates Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, Russia, Eastern and Western Europe. This book particularly focuses on the areas that are in dispute. The needs of U.S. regional policy are shifting off from Russia and Europe and moving towards Latin America, the Middle East, Africa and Asia. The writer of the book, Howard J. Wiarda, examines the challenges faced by the U.S. in those locales and also examines how the U.S. has responded to and should respond to the problems or issues that form up these crucial policy relationships.
This book deals with all the significant regions of the world that would be significant in formulating American’s foreign policy. These may include Russia, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, Middle East, Latin America and Asia. U.S. has good relations with all the other remaining regions so that is the reason only those areas or regions would be studied that are in strife. The methodology that have been used by the U.S. while formulating its policy is of positive sum which means absolute gains or mutual benefit. The foreign policy of the U.S. isn’t just for United States yet also in benefit of those regions that are incorporated in the dispute. A better understanding of these regions would be developed by understanding them in their own geographic, social and cultural context. Watching these regions from the lenses of US and imposing its solutions on world is not constructive at all. Knowing about the history and background of these regions and US interests and policies, will keep up a methodology of comparative politics.
The United States and the Western Europe are isolating their paths gradually. Their relations aren’t as stronger as their partners during the great wars and cold war era. Although majority of the American values have been derived from the Western Europe but now the ties between them are debilitating. The bond is weakening between the two additionally because of end of the reason of their alliance, containment of Soviet Union. The reasons are many. U.S. is multicultural and individuals from completely different communities live there. Western Europe joined United States within the war against communism by building coalition “Transatlantic Alliance” and “NATO”. United States might be partner with Western Europe in future for solving many economic, social and cultural hurdles yet for now it is paying more consideration on Asia and Middle Eastern regions. Since Europe is as stronger as America so it doesn’t need close ties with U.S. And with increasing military intensity of the U.S. Europe feels that it’s U.S. that should be quit knowing their intercession and reckless behavior in war torn states.
Eastern Europe was under the command of former USSR for a longer time. Eastern Europe was thought as under-developed part. Eastern Europe didn’t have any wealthy history like other sub areas of the Europe. It stayed as periphery to the core Western Europe and its boundaries kept fluctuating by the pressures of the powerful nations. It differs from remaining Europe culturally, socially, politically and economically. United States framed NATO with its other European allies while Soviet Union shaped Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe and it came within the direct confrontation with United States. In resistance of every agency established by the U.S., USSR made their own institutions in Eastern Europe. To stop the further ascent of USSR and communism, America devised the arrangement of “Containment”. America’s policy of containment brought the deteioration of the Soviet Union as it wasn’t ready to help its tasks in the Eastern Europe. West provided Eastern Europe with proper framework of governance to avoid wasting it from moving into hands of Russia once more. Eastern Europe was then admitted in EU and NATO although they failed to qualify. US needed a steady and democratic Eastern Europe and by adding it into EU and NATO it has been achieved to some extent.
US approach for Russia from conflict to the deterioration of the USSR was of “Containment”. Albeit Soviet Union was collaborate with the U.S. during WWII but with the rising military abilities both confronted each other for a long period. Soviet Union after an extensive stretch of encounter couldn’t bear the expense of clash and was eventually shattered. The new U.S. strategy for Russia was promotion of democratic values and market economy which will amend the living conditions of its individuals and additionally its methodology towards the world. U.S. even had the designs to join Russia into EU and NATO and become an accomplice of peace. However the bitterness of the relations is yet there. Russian people is also living a low standard life however they have well prepared armed forces. The political and social framework of Russia should be changed to allow democracy and capitalism prevail which is new U.S. arrangement towards Russia however it seems not possible for now. United States could have diplomatic ties with Russia but the two offer tense relations most of the time.
The power in the international affairs has been kept on changing and now it is moved to Asia. Asia has increased a lot of significance in defining the American international strategy. Asia has developed as another region of enthusiasm for the US. The explanation is Asia's quickly developing economies like China, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. China is a significant purpose of center for US as it has immensely developing economy and is a socialist state politically, a structure which US went through years to contain. Asia is an area of contention with five atomic states and ever prepared militaries. Border disputes among many states are evident. America is following a balance of power strategy in Asian region as they are potential enough to crash each other as a result of war. Asian states balance each other’s power potential as they don’t have proper framework for settling their contentions like west has European Union and NATO. Additionally they need agreement on the issues of basic interests. U.S. have marked arrangements with abundant of the Asian states and is enjoying the job of the peacemaker.
The Middle East is the most dangerous region where Terrorism, war could break out at any time. Middle Eastern region is of more significance in formulating American foreign policy because US beside many European states relies on oil of Middle East for their enterprises and trade. With atomic states like Pakistan and Israel there is constantly a risk for war in the locale which could enormously influence the Middle East. Economies of US and other western nations can dive deep down if the district goes into war or some sort of transformation. The US arrangement in Middle East is to create framework and advance majority rule government. Helping Middle Eastern nations with administration issues, overhauling their ways of life and improving their human rights circumstance is likewise on the list. Majority rules system can't be pushed into these Middle Eastern states as there is still inadequacy of certain essentials. For instance states like Afghanistan which is very different from west. Destabilized Middle East would be destabilized economy so the significant arrangement of US is wipe out strains among the clashing gatherings.
Latin American nations are becoming financially breaking the older picture of underdeveloped and incapable area. A large portion of the Latin American states have accomplished the status of 'upper middle class' which is an prerequisite to advancement. These zones have turned out to be significant for US with their sizable locations advanced with assets particularly Brazil and Mexico. These countries give market to US items and are pivotal for its economy. The manner in which entire locale is developing, US needs to end its carelessness of the area. US is associated with worldwide governmental issues where stability of every region is fundamental. America ought to keep up stable relations with the Latin American region by settling the issues and giving the rising regions much required consideration as they share same social and cultural qualities too.
African region is the most underdeveloped region one will consider.. All the problems that are destructive for any framework are available like corruption, lack of education, diseases, poverty, war and violence, harsh climate and plenty of additional uncountable indecencies. With numerous problems harming the region, U.S. is fascinated by serving them and lifting them out of this hopeless life. That's why America has antecedently helped African countries in any possible way and is prepared to have its impact within the present and future. Though U.S. has provided these states with all the help they have in terms of funds further however the corruption and political insecurity didn't let any improvement to occur. Not solely U.S. however African region could be an obligatory a part of foreign policies of alternative states and many human rights agencies are operating within the region for the reduction of financial condition and economic development. African region is wealthy in natural assets like oil and diamonds that is why it's significant for U.S. interests and will be a trade accomplice. Alternative rising states are operating within the region that's why it's within the interest of America to assume its role.
At this point the conclusion can be drawn that all the world regions have their significance which is shifting relatively. Presently the strategy of U.S. is no more Europe and Russia focused. These are as yet significant areas yet have lost their essentialness in contrast with the others where US may have new exchange opportunities. Asia and Middle East are notable in these areas. Asian region isn’t just rising economy yet in addition unsteady with atomic abilities. Middle East has its own significance. The focal points to US here are numerous from atomic weapons and oppression to oil. Latin America additionally comes as a vital locale alongside African region. Both these regions have emerged during the previous couple of years. Latin America shares social, cultural and economic ties with the United States. US international strategy in these two regions is more of opportunity based rather than based on threat like in other regions. Overall we can say that four regions Asia, Middle East, Latin America and Africa are raising as important actors in the U.S. foreign policy making. They have picked up significance since they are rising economies as well as on the grounds that they are key and increasingly inclined to viciousness and flimsiness. Subsequently Europe and Russia have lost their essentialness when contrasted with different regions.
The author of the book clearly explains all the issues and challenges that the U.S. is confronting in formulating its policy in a good and understandable way. The author is not biased towards anything. He clarifies the things in an appropriate way.
The writer audits the political circumstances in every locale of the world. Individual countries of particular essential to U.S. international strategy are canvassed separately in more depth at the end of each provincial chapter. Wiarda takes exceptional consideration to characterize ranges of influence and future difficulties in every area, which moves the content from a negligible useful vehicle to a powerful guide for international actors. I would prescribe this book to any individual who wishes increase a fair and exhaustive perspective on the present global political circumstance. At around 200 pages, the book can without much of a stretch be read and immediately comprehended.