The elderly people are one of the most vulnerable minority group towards Arthritis and Musculoskeletal conditions. To be an elderly, the individual must be 65 years or over, according to the Social Security Administration (Katie. 24th July 2017). The most common reason for arthritis in elderly people is due to stress and strain on the joints over the years. The body undergoes a lot of wear and tear as you age (Sharma. B. 12th October 2015).
Arthritis is a joint disorder which features inflammation of one or more joints. The two main types of arthritis are Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis causes cartilage to break down, and Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints (Mayo Clinic. 19th July 2019). Its symptoms are joint pain, swelling, redness in the joints. The diagnosis consists of a blood test and imaging tests including MRI and X-ray scans to help show the severity of inflammation. Treatment may include, anti-inflammatory tablets and pain relievers. Musculoskeletal conditions are conditions that involve the muscle, bones, tendons, ligaments, joints and nerves (GoodPx. N. d). Examples may include, spinal discs, ACL etc. common signs and symptoms include, pain, weakness, joint noises/clicks/pops (Villa-Forte. A. September 2019). Similar to arthritis, musculoskeletal conditions diagnosis consists of, imaging tests including MRI and X-ray scans. This is also diagnosed by the doctor by testing joint movement. Treatments to this health issue may include, exercise including muscle strengthening, physiotherapy, chiropractic care (DerSarkissian. C 25th April 2019). Arthritis falls in the category of chronic diseases (Sharma. B. 12th October 2015). Musculoskeletal conditions may be acute and chronic, it all depends on the effected part of the body.
Between 2017-2018, 12.1% of males had a type of arthritis and 17.9% of women had arthritis. Almost 1 in 3 (29%) of Australians had a musculoskeletal condition in 2017–18, around 7.0 million people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 30th August 2019). Overall, an estimated 22.7% (54.4 million) of adults had doctor-diagnosed arthritis, with significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence in women (23.5%) than in men (18.1%). Arthritis prevalence increased with age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 7th February 2018). An estimated 126.6 million Americans (one in two adults) are affected by a musculoskeletal condition (Science Daily. 1st March 2016). The comparison between Australia and America in terms of arthritis, there’s a huge gap. Australia’s percentage of arthritis in men is only 12.1% compared to the 18.1% in America and 17.9% of Australian women have arthritis compared to the 23.5% in America. As Australia has almost 1 in 3 people (around 7 million people) with musculoskeletal condition, America has 1 in 2 adults (estimated around 126.6 million people) with musculoskeletal condition.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is more common in older people because OA usually occurs when the individual grows older. This is because as we grow older, the cartilage begins to become ragged and wears away (a Place for Mom. January 2018). The most widely recognized explanation behind arthritis in old individuals is because of anxiety on the joints throughout the years. The body, all in all, experiences a great deal of distance as you age (Sharma. B. 12th October 2015). As the individual works, plays sports and does heavy and does direct activities they are using their muscles, ligaments, joints and etc, when they grow older the different body parts that get affected by arthritis start to tear and wear down. With age, musculoskeletal tissues show increased bone fragility, loss of cartilage resilience, reduced ligament elasticity, loss of muscular strength, and fat redistribution decreasing the ability of the tissues to carry out their normal functions. (Gheno. R, Cepparo. J, Rosca C, Cotten. A. 28th July 2012).
Physical therapy is the suggested act for improving muscle strength around the joints. When Rheumatoid arthritis is severe, a Rheumatologist, a health professional that specializes in the treatment of arthritis, autoimmune diseases, pain disorders affecting joints, and osteoporosis is required for treatment to the patient with Rheumatoid arthritis. Surgery may be needed for certain patients with severe cases of spinal arthritis that leads to instability of the joint or nerve root pinching. (Mooney. V. 25th May 2005). When an individual has a musculoskeletal condition, many health professionals are able to help, but the most common are chiropractors and physiotherapists. Chiropractors duty to help with musculoskeletal conditions is to ask the patient where the pain is and begins to release tension and helps reduce the pain on the patient. This is done by cracking the individuals body releasing stress and tension in different techniques. The Physiotherapist helps the patient with musculoskeletal condition by massaging, and working through and providing a range of exercises to help strengthen the muscles around the joints. When the pain is severe, an Orthopaedist is required. An Orthopaedist provides services to the postoperative treatment of diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system.