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Depression Essays

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Depression is an illness that is beyond human control. It affects the mind in a negative way and also affects the way we perceive and apply information in our life. Cortisol is the ‘stress hormone’. Many kids are sustained, which leads to elevated hormones of cortisol. But the hormone which helps them to cope up with stress is not produced properly. So if they are not getting the main hormone, they will be affected by depression. Depression has been reported to be more prevalent in females rather than males. Females suffer stereotypes and have to go through a lot of suppression from society which can be the cause of it. Depression is caused by society’s norms of normality and abnormality. Jahoda (1958) came up with some reasons as to why some abnormal’ behavior might be the reasons for depression or other mental health problems. He stated things like low self-esteem, toxic relationships, no stability with jobs and money etc. Some people are more prone to get depressed than others, some can shake negative feelings of and some cannot deal with it. The main components that affect depression can be genes, relationships, hormonal changes, stress etc. (Schimelpfening, 2018). The concept of abnormality and depression is not that different, mostly society affects a person more than anything else. About 6 and a half percent of adults are affected by depression. Medical causes and environmental factors can be the reason for depression too (Parekh, 2017). There is no one reason and way to find out why a person would get affected by depression. It is hard for doctors to pinpoint the main reason for depression in a person but many psychological factors together which can help a person improve.

First, the biological components affecting depression can be many. The prefrontal lobe of our brain which is responsible for all our decisions is where depression takes place. If our body doesn’t get enough nourishment and our brain doesn’t get enough stimulation, we can slip into depression. Not eating a properly balanced diet can reduce oxygen levels in the blood which can cause the brain to not function a release coping hormones resulting in major depression. In a case study done on a man who suffered injuries to his prefrontal lobe was discovered that when it was damaged he started showing abusive behavior. Gage never used abusive language until after the surgery. This case study gives all the evidence because before the accident he was a soft-spoken person but after the accident his speech got abusive and everybody as shocked. This was the first case where the doctors saw the relationship between speech and the frontal brain. Most of his language was filled with pornographic language and that is why women were advised not to stay in his presence. Neurotransmitters are responsible for the carrying of messages through cells, and some of them are responsible for our mood changes (Lyness, 2016). If depression has been into that family genes might also affect the neurotransmitters for transmission of depression. Cortisol is the stress hormone and people with depression have been tested and said to have high levels of cortisol. This shows the link of stress with depression and how high levels of cortisol can cause depression. The other hormone is responsible for depression for serotonin. The chemical balance of serotonin can also be responsible for depression, however, it is hard to tell the components of the reason for this imbalance. To determine this chemical imbalance doctors use scans like the PET scans and fMRI scans. They can determine the size of the hippocampus or the effect of mood on the brain. People with depression have been reported to have a smaller hippocampus. Having a problem in the hippocampus can result in a problem with remembering things and can lead to amnesia. (Harvard Health Publishing, 2009)

Second, the cognitive factors that affect depression are all in the brain. Telling ourselves that we are not good enough or having any form of insecurity can lead to depression. Some people who lack self-esteem are more subjected to depression. If people start being less insecure they might be able to stop themselves from falling into depression. The help of peers and loved ones is the most important during these times. It is not for sure that people who think depressively are the ones subjected to depression but to cure this could be inducing positive thinking. The social and cultural factor of depression is many. Loss of relative, unemployment, and domestic abuse is some of them. The root of is when a child goes through something traumatic, they carry it throughout their whole life. The symptoms of depression are weight loss, lack of appetite, not being to feel emotions, isolation, fatigue, and getting tired easily Murphy et al. (1967). Different cultures also affect depression differently. Every culture has different norms of abnormality. For instance, in some cultures dating is okay and in some, it is not. Cultures that have a conservative society are reported to have more depressed people than those that have more openness. Something that is also the reason for depression is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is easy to tell someone is going through PTSD when they fail to participate in day-to-day activities. Traumatic events in life can cause a person to go through this and they might sometimes not be able to cope with it. The symptoms of PTSD are nightmares, lack of concentration, flashbacks, zoning out, migraines, and sleeping problems, panic attacks, problems with eating or digesting, anger issues. Loneliness and troubled personal relationships can also be factors affecting depression. For example, if someone is under stress from school or work the brain might just give negative signals which cause them to lose hope and not be able to do their work. Stressors cause depression, some stressors can be poverty, and poverty can cause low self-esteem, criminal behavior, health etc. Stressors like these can be avoided in schools and workplaces by giving children awards or raising employee salaries. Adolescents suffer from depression as they are going through puberty. Body changes and hormonal changes influence a great part of their life. It could cause them to lose sleep, lose focus etc. most common between the ages of 12 to 18 (Morin, 2018). For example, if a 10-year-old goes into his class and announces he is gay, he will be made fun of and bullied. To prevent him the trauma, parents hide away some substantial knowledge from their kids and teach them from the start that this is bad and that is good. Having less knowledge is kind of a protective barrier in this situation. The child will be confident amongst his peers and will not be made fun of. However, coming to real-world situations, having less knowledge about the present realities could be obnoxious. Many people suicide daily because they are not allowed to openly express who they are.

Depression can be treated by using medication or many kinds of therapies. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is based on the cognitive factors of depression. Therapists talk with their clients and help them figure out the root of their problems. They help them with problem-solving tactics like meditation or avoiding triggers, or helping them get back into a normal routine. There are other therapies like behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Talking therapies help to cope up as the clients are merely talking to strangers who don’t know anything about their past, they can talk without the fear of being judged.

To conclude, depression is something that can consume a person into a whole. It can get so serious people can lose all their senses. The help of family and friends and having a healthy lifestyle can help prevent depression.


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  3. Hannibal, J. (2012). Psychology for the IB diploma. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 149-61.
  4. Harvard Health Publishing. (n.d.). What causes depression? Retrieved from
  5. Lyness, D. (Ed.). (2016, August). Why Do People Get Depressed? (for Teens). Retrieved from
  6. Morin, A., & Lcsw. (n.d.). How Many People Are Actually Affected by Depression Every Year? Retrieved from
  7. Schimelpfening, N., & Gans, S. (n.d.). Why Some People Are More Prone to Depression Than Others. Retrieved from
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