Introduction Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects 0.5-1% of the population and is associated with significant morbidity, disability, and costs for society(1). Atherosclerotic disease in both its subclinical and clinically established phases is widely prevalent throughout the world. Disease progression can eventually lead to the occurrence of acute cardiovascular events (CVE), such as myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, and sudden cardiac death(2). RA is associated with increased premature mortality mainly due to cardiovascular (CV) diseases (3). Atherosclerosis...
Potential therapies for promoting plaque regression Various targets have been proposed to induce plaque regression or slow down the atherosclerosis process. Some potential therapeutic targets are discussed in the following paragraphs within the idea of plaque regression (Table 2). Evidence of plaque regression The plaque regression concept was evidenced earlier from animal studies 101 and from patients undergoing medical therapy 102, 103. Murine apo E−/− or the LDL receptor−/− suggested that plaque regression occurs 104. Plaque regression is an important...
It is often presented that people need to increase their iron intake by consuming more red meat or green vegetables to prevent anaemia and other diseases linked to low iron. Anaemia is a condition where the body does not make enough healthy red blood cells preventing the body’s tissues from getting sufficient oxygen. There is no doubt that iron is a vital element needed for various processes within our body; however, it is important to know that too much iron...
Through which mechanisms might periodontal disease lead to an increased risk of atherosclerosis? Introduction Periodontal disease is the irreversible chronic inflammation of surrounding and supporting structures of teeth (periodontal ligament) and it affects around 20-25% of the global population (Nazir. MA, 2017), it’s caused due to the infection from various gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, mainly; Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola. They create a biofilm layer which later develops into subgingival plaque, leading to alveolar bone resorption and ultimately exfoliation of teeth,...
List of abbreviations Cardiovascular disease (CVD) transient ischemic attack (TIA) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), World Health Organization (WHO) World Heart Federation (WHF) Background Why did I take this up for a detailed study? First of all, atherosclerosis is one of my favourite topics in cardiovascular system that we learned. It is one of the topics that I am highly interested and this topic has been always the talk of people who have heart diseases. Moreover, it has a...
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Introduction to atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is the consequence of hyperlipidemia and lipid oxidation and has dependably been a noteworthy reason for mortality in created nations. It is an ailment of vascular intima, where all the vascular framework from aorta to coronary supply routes can be included and is described by intimal plaques. The term atherosclerosis is of Greek starting point, which means thickening of the intimal layer of veins and collection of fat. Greasy material is situated in the focal center...
In ‘Stress: Portrait of a Killer’ a documentary by National Geographic goes in depth about how dangerous stress can be. For humans stress is always present. There is always a worry about work, finances, relationships, and other situations that poses a challenge. In most mammals stress is a few minutes of terror in a in a habitat full of predators. Biologist want to understand why humans, apes, and monkeys get more stress related diseases. They have concluded that humans and...
Atherosclerosis can be instigated by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Individually environmental and genetic risk factors and how they affect atherosclerosis are understood. However, the understanding of how a genetic condition interacts with environmental factors is less understood. In this essay the interactions between Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and environmental factors interact and there consequences will be discussed. FH is an autosomal codominant disease, it is inherited and affects the metabolism of lipoproteins (Ramaswami et al., 2019). FH is...