Basic Knowledge And Theories Of Early Childhood Education

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Early childhood education is for children from the years three to six. Around this field, we can get toward know the importance of early childhood education to family as well as society by studying the objectives that early programs have meant for a child. First of all, information is consisting of fact’s concepts, ideas, vocabulary and services is a small period of time plus disposition can respond to certain situations and after all feelings, emotional states as successful care giving and early education, it can bring an optimistic outcome to a kid’s life. What a kid learns in their initial years are things that will remain to help them along in their upcoming in school and in the real world.

On the other hand, cognitive development is the progression of the ability to think and reason. By contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky in the field of cognitive development and by examining the value of elements often found in the early childhood classroom peer interaction, pretend play and computers, potentially valuable classroom practices will be examined especially in the context of technological advancement and socialization practices. Through the investigation of these elements, it will be determined whether a Piagetian or Vygotskian method will be further beneficial in the initial classroom. By understanding cognitive development, kindergarten educators will be able to better implement sound methodologies, providing a firm foundation in kindergarten children. (Cherry, 2014) explained that in view of Jean Piaget, kids grow within four stages of cognitive development. Each character, how kids understand the globe.

Incidentally, every childcare service of education centre should have its own mission statement or philosophy to abide by. Individual centres would most likely adopt different approaches to children’s learning but there would undoubtedly be common elements in the overall philosophy. This philosophy can be developed through comprehension reflection, discussion and evaluation. Early childhood educators must be able to describe exactly how this philosophy guides the process of education in kids as well as other practices the centres adopt such as daily routines and other events.



First and foremost, socialization with individuals more than child’s extended family in a safe atmosphere is an important foundation element to the below areas and the parents can believe that their kids core societal abilities that prepare them for kindergarten and beyond. These abilities boost children’s confidence, increase their ability to build healthy relationship with others and help them as they adapt to new environment and rising expectations. This issue support by (Elksnin, 2000) by let us know that learning social skills early in life is predictive of children’s ability to adjust to society and be productive members of their culture.

Next, esteem teaching tie value of regard for others. This is not restricted to individuals and possessions, but can also mean esteem for their environment, both immediate and global. This issue supported by (Wood, 1999) said that as responsive, respect is object generated rather than wholly subject generated, something that is owed to, called for, deserved, elicited, or claimed by the object. We respect something not because we want to but because we recognize that we have respect it.

Other than that, teamwork demonstrating and instilling the significance of cooperation that can teach admiration for the views of others, listen in cooperation and equality. (Johnson, 1995) explained that teams and teamwork help to promote deep understanding that occurs all through interaction, difficulty resolving, dialogue, cooperation and collaboration.

Then, supports further learning schools improves children’s achievement, reduces absenteeism and restores confident in their teaching. Children’s with engaged parents or additional caregivers earn higher grades and test scores, have better social skills and show improved behaviour.

Furthermore, development discovers they strengths, interests and areas that need refreshing plus struggling with certain aspects of their teaching, it is an ideal time to discuss concerns with the teachers. This issue supported by (Bereiter, 1989) by explained that as kids mature, build ideas of what it means to understand and appreciate that profoundly influence how they situate themselves in settings that demand effortful and intentional knowledge.

More than that, high society networks sources of information’s and extended family connections that can be lifelong. Societal connections between kids provide security when provide transitions. Such as preschool, a child may be more willing to join a group or activity if they as a friend willing to participate. Apart from that, kids will be taught first class when teaching and educational events are only a small portion of their days.

In additional, improved social skills. For example, meanwhile kids have low interest spans, parents are encouraged to use every day routine activities to educate kids value lessons as significance of kindergarten teaching of kids is one step that can be taken to a high society economically and socially. This issue explained by (Leary, 1957) said that for socialization, interpersonal skills are essential to relate to one another. Interpersonal skills are the interpersonal acts a person uses to interact with others, which are related to dominance vs. submission, love vs. hate, affiliation vs. aggression, and control vs. autonomy categories.

Last but not least, outcome for kids should include the subsequent by the process of care and teaching such as dispositions, this refers to the combinations of the children’s emerging expertise, abilities and approach to education. The child’s disposition for education is vital such as it is the basis for the advancement of courage and curiosity, trust and playfulness, perseverance, confidence and responsibility. Next, empowerment, empowering the kid will assist him or her to build a strong and healthy common sense of self as capable and confident learners. After that, engagement, drawing the child into the lesson and engaging their attention and participation is essential used for a meaningful education knowledge. This will also result in a higher probability to lead to further experimentation and new learning outcomes. This can be easily and effectively accomplished through child-initiated play that is interesting and satisfying. The teachers should additionally play alongside the kids to stimulate their thinking while enhancing creativity.


The key differences amid Jean Piaget besides Lev Vygotsky, they have two knowledge themes with a lot of differences for instance Jean Piaget illustrate that cognitive development is already formed and driven by the way kids adapt to new experiences but in the other hand Lev Vygotsky depicted that cognitive development is driven by communal interaction and experiences. So, in the classroom we can know that inquiry education is a method based on the constructivist method along with perceive knowledge to be the process of making sense and meaning of new information. Piaget asserted that cognitive development is the process of restructuring expertise through interaction along with the nature and Vygotsky believed that knowledge is social in origin, this issue support by (Cole, 1996).

Other than that, Jean Piaget also mentioned that kids understand all through active self-discovery and awareness but from Lev Vygotsky view he mentioned that kids need constructed advice to understand and build. By that, in the classroom children’s education requires the active participation of the learner and constructed guidance by reading, writing and solve problems.

Next, Jean Piaget got depicted that cognitive development is universally similar for all kids but Lev Vygotsky object it and depicted that cognitive development varies and differs depending on culture and time. So, by this children’s knowledge of concepts and the ability to think and reason in the classroom will increase plus the ability to interact along with others while using language helps kids develop cognitive skills.

Besides, Jean Piaget also said that kids will only understand once they remain ready, but Lev Vygotsky didn’t admit it and said that kids can learn at any point by having the ZPD scaffolded and shaped. Apart from it, in classroom kids be taught by way of observing, listening, exploring, experimenting and asking question. To being interested, motivated and engaged in education is essential for kids. It can also help but they understand why they’re discovering something. This issue supported by (Flavell, 1977) by explained that kids acquire the ability to perform various tasks that involve coordinating two or more ideas. For example, they can do basic perspective-taking, in which they relate a representation of someone else’s perceptual viewpoint with a representation of their own.

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In Conjunction, Jean Piaget stated that dialect is a result of cognitive development, but Lev Vygotsky stated that dialect is the key to unlocking cognitive development. By this in classroom the term classroom dialect is most often used in education and use a target language as much as possible, so the classroom dialect is also an essential part of language education. In practice, it means that kids be taught to make use of commonly used simple phrases at an early age.

On the other part, Jean Piaget was a biology, psychology and philosophy scholar while Lev Vygotsky first received a degree in law, then a degree in psychology. Even with two very different backgrounds, both scholars took constructivist approach to their research in cognitive development as they believed, kids experienced four development stages and collaboration between learners and being able to learn cooperatively with others. Although Piaget’s theory has been very influential, it has not gone unchallenged. Many more recent researchers have obtained findings indicating that cognitive development is considerably further continuous than Piaget claimed.

As part of their cognitive development, children also develop schemes, which are mental representations of people, objects, or principles. These schemes can be changed or altered through what Piaget called assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is information we already know. Accommodation involves adapting one's existing knowledge to what is perceived. Disequilibrium occurs when new knowledge does not fit with one's accumulated knowledge. When one reaches what Piaget called equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation have occurred to create a new stage of development. Once realizing the concept of conservation, a child must initially 'struggle' with the idea that the liquid amount in the cylinders has not changed (disequilibrium). After accommodating the new knowledge, equilibrium occurs, and the child may advance to a new cognitive stage (concrete operations).

Another aspect of linguistic advancement involves private speech. Private speech is self-talk kids and adults may use to guide actions and aid in thinking. While Piaget may view private speech such as egocentric or immature, Vygotsky understood the significance of self-directed speech. Private speech is self-directed regulation and communication with the self and becomes internalized after about nine years.

What he created over the study was that over time, fundamental concepts of time, numbers, and space emerged. He concluded that children are born with a basic genetic or inherited mental structure. This is the foundational structure for everything else we learn through social, environmental, and physical experiences.

This theory has a lot of popularity today in child directed learning. It is a theory which encourages and promotes contextual education, led by the child as an active learner. A lot of play based learning ideas stem from this theory.

It is critical to examine them to be able to compare the ways in which each of the authors have dealt with the challenge to explain the advancement in general. In the first observation, it is interesting to contemplate that Piaget and Vygotsky move away from the innate and empiricist proposals when explaining the acquisitions of knowledge. Both pose their theory from a constructivist paradigm.

It may seem, all through the above, that Piaget ignored the societal aspects of growth, but this is not the case. Whatever happens is that he interprets or assumes the social factor in a very different way from Vygotsky. For Piaget, the unit of analysis is the individual and the social factor would only be a variable that influences the processes of it.

By using Piaget’s theory in the classroom, teachers and students benefit in several ways. Teachers develop a better knowledge of their students’ thinking. They can also align their teaching strategies with their students’ cognitive level as example motivational set, modelling, and assignments. Their goal is to help the person construct experience. Conservation of constancy is the ability to understand how some characteristics of a thing can change, while others stay the same. In other words, it is the realization that even though an object can be changed physically, some of the characteristics for that object remain the same.

While Piaget's theories were waning in importance, those of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky began to receive more interest. Whereas Piaget asserted that all kids pass through a few universal stages of cognitive development, Vygotsky believed that cognitive development varied across cultures.

Piaget also emphasized that intelligence is actually acquired based on our own action. Piaget insisted that whenever kids continuously interact with their atmosphere they will eventually learn, he also mentioned that after series of development learning will take place.

So, we can deduct the learning occurs when there are changes in behaviour resulting from experiences and communication with the atmosphere. This the experiences that are planned and provided for kids within a certain core curriculum must rightly be centred on the underlying definition of what education is all about and on concepts of how kids understand.

In comparison, learning stems from provocation, as it were. This is because learning occurs in a specific situation, at a specific movement or when a specific problem needs to be tackled. It is relatively easy to determine if a child has learned something. This can be done in various ways such as observing how a child interacts with other children, what he or she does, interpreting the result of achievement tests and also by reading stories written by the child. All these would indicate a change of thought pattern, behaviour or knowledge which would indicate learning has taken spot.


It is clear that the significance of early care and education cannot be over-stressed. Early childhood education is critical to the works with a solid foundation of abilities, competencies, attitudes and behaviours that will ensure their success in a more technology-based and competitive future economic environment. Plus, early childhood education refers to learning programmes and strategies geared toward kids since birth to the period of eight. Early childhood education also often focuses on guiding kids to understand through play. Intended for youthful kids, nursing and teaching are independent and inseparable to inspire and facilitate an improved learning component in the area of childcare, here should be there more interaction and co-ordination among the teaching, care and health sectors. There are some terminologies of early on childhood teaching that need to be defined and understood by early childhood educators.

In contrast, here remain several distinct theories of youth education and advancement, theories play vital roles in understanding how kids learn. A key point in Piaget’s cognitive development theory is that kids actively construct knowledge such as they assimilate new information with existing mental structures or accommodate those mental structures to fit new information. This process results in cognitive balance or equilibrium. The principles of Vygotsky’s theory such as scaffolding in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) can be applied to all age groups. Anything the child acquires at a provided psychosocial stage of advancement is a certain ratio between the positive and negative, which if the balance is toward the positive, will help him to meet crises later in life, along with a better opportunity for unimpaired total development.

So, the primary teachers of kids are first and foremost the parents themselves. Thus, early childhood learning should rightly be a complementary partnership between the family and the nursing or teaching centre. This said, caregivers and teachers at such centres for care and early childhood teaching need to know the kids they work with and be aware of their background, family, culture and community. Concisely, when both theories are used during combining together with one another, there is endless scope to help out kids develop critical thinking abilities and cognitive awareness for a well-rounded way to learn.


  1. Bereiter. (1989). How Children Learn. Fifth St.
  2. Cherry. (2014). Formal Operational Stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Educational Research.
  3. Cole. (1996). Cognitive Development in the Kindergarten Classroom. Educational and Development Psychology.
  4. Elksnin. (03 February, 2000). Early Childhood Education. Retrieved from The Long-Term Benefits:
  5. Flavell. (1977). Cognitive Development In School-Age Children. Kurt W. Fischer.
  6. Johnson. (1995). Successful teamwork. A case study.
  7. Leary. (1957). Social skills. Retrieved from Wikipedia:
  8. Wood. (1999). Respect. Retrieved from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
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