Bipolar Disorder in Adolescent: Synthesis Essay

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The track I chose for this project was track two Psychological Influences of Abnormal Behavior. Abnormality can be subjective depending on what one person considers abnormal (Whitbourne, 2017). Since there is a huge variation of what is normal, one could define abnormality as what is considered outside of the socially expected norm. Since the world is constantly changing the definition and factors revolving around abnormal behavior are also developing. Psychological causes are also a factor and can be viewed as a larger grouping of issues that can be influenced by something happening in the body and its environment (Whitbourne, 2017).

Article One- The efficacy and effectiveness of psychological treatments for mood, anxiety, and other related disorders.

The article provided a narrative review that examined the extensive evidence that supported both efficiency and effectiveness of psychological treatments for common mental disorders. This study claimed that the clinical impact of specific forms of psychological treatments was as effective as medicine. Also, the research clearly supported the use of numerous psychological treatments such as CBT, as a go-to intervention for commonly occurring mental disorders (Hunsley, Elliot, & Therrien, 2014). As a result, there is a clear connection between both efficiency research and effectiveness research in means of successful treatments.

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The variables have been studied before in the past but previous studies showed that treatments benefited clients the articles here indicate that previous studies only focused on the efficacy of treatment for mental illnesses and not the effectiveness of the treatment. (Hunsley, Elliot, Therrien 2014). The variables that were looked at in this article were different treatments for various mental illnesses. The types of illnesses that were looked at were depression, sad (social anxiety disorder), bipolar, panic disorders, PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), generalized anxiety disorder, and OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder). (Hunsley, Elliot, Therrien 2014). The variables in this study helped to show a clear example of a correlation design that used a combination of variables to see how they correspond with one another.

Most importantly this study was completed in an ethical manner. Confidentiality is one of the critical ethical considerations that was maintained in these research studies. During the research, it made sure to keep the information of the patients undisclosed from any third parties without the consent of the patient.

In conclusion, this study has proven that there is a substantial amount of evidence that psychological treatments and interventions can have significant effects and improvements on mental health conditions.

Article Two- Cognitive Processing Therapy for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Comparison Between Outpatient and Residential Treatment.

The purpose of this article was to compare pretreatment characteristics and treatment outcomes between veterans receiving outpatient and residential PTSD treatment. The article hypothesized that as residential treatment is designed for veterans with more impairing symptoms and complex psychosocial stressors, residential patients would endorse greater PTSD and depression symptom severity at pretreatment compared with outpatients. They also hypothesized that veterans in both programs would benefit from treatment as evidenced by reductions in PTSD and depression symptoms. The findings indicated that whether clinician-assessed or self-reported, greater PTSD symptom improvement occurred in outpatients compared to residential patients. Veterans in residential treatment endorsed an overall higher PTSD symptom severity and did not experience the same proportion of symptom relief compared to veterans in outpatient treatment.

One of the main variables was the two different treatment centers the veterans received their treatments both outpatient and residential. A second variable that was looked at was the demographic differences along with age, gender, race, and a few others. During this study, many different tests/approaches were done to collect the samples, data, and information to provide more detailed information (Walter et al., 2014). The information gained could be used to help provide better treatment options.

Most importantly the study was conducted in an ethical manner. All data was collected as part of routine clinical care. During admission to both outpatient and residential treatment programs, veterans were administered a series of assessment instruments to determine their pretreatment diagnostic status and functioning. All assessments were conducted by clinicians with extensive training and supervision in the provision of psychological tests. The outcome of the research allowed the veterans to receive the proper level of care that they needed.

In conclusion, the study identified differences in demographics and severity levels with both outpatient and residential treatment. With this kind of information, it’s easier for veterans to be placed with the best treatment options.

Article Three- Stressful Life Events in Bipolar I and II Disorder: Cause or Consequence of Mood Symptoms

The purpose of this article was to provide a study that would examine the relationship between life events and mood disorders both negative and positive in people who suffer from bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. The hypothesis was that life events are triggers for new mood episodes in bipolar disorder. Especially negative life events seem to be more common in the months prior to both depressive and manic episodes (Christensen et al., 2003, Cohen et al., 2004, Hosang et al., 2012b, Hunt et al., 1992, Johnson et al., 2008b, Malkoff -Schwartz et al., 1996).

The variables that were looked at were mainly patients with a diagnosis of Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder, and Bipolar Disorder NOS. The other variables that were looked at were negative and positive life events, manic and depressive symptoms along with functional impairments. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results as many differed in terms of the specific Bipolar Disorder diagnosis. Other studies also relied on smaller sample sizes and short follow-up periods which contributed to inconsistent findings. This caused a lack of statistical power to be able to detect a consistent association between life events and mood symptoms. To date, only Johnson et al. (2008b) studied the effect of life events on bipolar mood in a prospective study with both a large sample size and a relatively long follow-up period. This study focused more on the what rather than the why. This study focused more on the what rather than the why. For this study, the cohort design was used, and the study was conducted over a period of time among a population that shared similarities. During this study, all 173 patients, who were 18 or older, participated in an outpatient program in a medical facility (Koenders et al., 2014). Each patient signed a written consent form. Everyone was given the same baseline measurement and psychiatric interview to assess their illness.

Most importantly the study was completed in an ethical manner. Each patient's name and personal information were kept private. The study was conducted in an ethical manner.

In conclusion, this study showed that life events whether negative or positive can have a significant impact on mood symptoms and functional impairment for patients with Bipolar Disorder I and Bipolar Disorder II.

Article Four- Impulsivity and Suicidality in Adolescent Inpatients

The purpose of this article was to determine if separate domains of impulsivity were differentially associated with suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. The hypothesis was that there was a unique association with suicide ideation and that attempts in the past month and that feelings trigger actions are associated with the occurrence of suicide attempts, even after controlling for current psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms. They also hypothesized that the pervasive influence of feelings is uniquely associated with greater suicidal ideation.

The variables that were looked at were mainly adolescents both boys and girls between the ages 13-19 that were placed in an acute, residential treatment program. Previous research indicated that negative urgency a subscale of the feelings trigger action has been shown to predict suicide attempts. For this study, exploratory design and descriptive design method was used. The Institutional Review Board approved all study procedures, which were embedded within a quality assurance program wherein all adolescent patients admitted to the child and adolescent program receive clinical assessments.

Most important this study was conducted in an ethical manner. Prior to participation, legal guardians and adolescents 18 years old and older provided written consent, and youth aged 18 years or younger provided assent.

In conclusion, this study showed that suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and impulsivity has emerged as a promising marker of risk.

Article Five- Sexual risk behaviors in the adolescent offspring of Parents with bipolar disorder

The purpose of this article was to determine the contribution of parents’ personality and offspring behavior problems in middle childhood to offspring sexual risk behavior 10 years later. The hypothesis was that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents’ personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent sexual risk behaviors. It was also hypothesized that the associations were more robust among offspring with bipolar disorder than controls.

The variables that were looked at were offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and controls of the ages 4-14 along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Families were participants in a longitudinal prospective study comparing developments.

Most importantly I believe this study was conducted in an ethical manner. The article did not specify how consent was obtained. However, the end of the study did indicate that the study was conducted in compliance with Ethical Standards and that there were no conflicts of interest.

In conclusion, this study showed that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRB). It also showed that parents with BD are more likely than parents with no mental disorder to exhibit significantly elevated levels of trait neuroticism, exposing their offspring to more severe negative emotionality.

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Bipolar Disorder in Adolescent: Synthesis Essay. (2023, October 09). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 22, 2024, from
“Bipolar Disorder in Adolescent: Synthesis Essay.” Edubirdie, 09 Oct. 2023,
Bipolar Disorder in Adolescent: Synthesis Essay. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 22 Jun. 2024].
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