Broken Windows Theory:
St., J. P. K. B. (2007). Pockets of crime: Broken windows, collective efficacy, and the criminal point of view. ProQuest E-book Central.
Essentially this chapter states the key ideas of the broken windows theory and collective efficacy. The broken windows theory predicates that high levels of a disorderly neighbourhood can unknowingly influence crime which can lead to effects such as fear and a lack of social control which then serves a foundation for more pressing crimes, as opposed to collective efficacy which argues that high crime thrives due to a result of low collective efficacy. The pivotal points of this chapter are what the broken window theorists believe, who argue, neighbourhood disorder such as graffiti, boarded up windows etc. can lead to offenders disregarding the neighbourhood and therefore thinking there are few ramifications. A key point also mentioned various times is the idea that the more a neighbourhood is left unchecked, disorderly will continue to increase which will advance to ‘law-abiding citizens will refrain from using public space’ (St., J. P. K. B, 2007, p. 2). An additional point stated with clarity is that supporters of said theory argue in order to reduce serious crime, petty and insignificant crimes (loitering, public drinking) must be belligerently quashed.
A strength presented in this chapter is that the author suggests areas for further reading and research in the form of in-text citations which will help with the understanding of the chapter. An additional strength is the authors sentence structure which makes grasping information a much easier read and a better understanding for any reader. On the opposite side, a weakness could be the dates of the references used. Majority of the references being used date from as early as 1975 to 2006, this being said the references aren’t as recent as they could be which could lead to unreliable and outdated sources. Another weakness is the neutrality in the authors text, it is quite biased as the book was made for a certain audience (offenders, criminals), and written from the viewpoint of the author ‘I have chosen to focus on…’ (St., J. P. K. B, 2007, p. 2). A biased text could lead to inaccuracy or other sides of the argument not being given the same chance to express their ideas on the matter.
Viding, E., McCrory, E., Seara-Cardoso, A. (2014). Psychopathy. Current Biology.
In this article the authors are primarily talking about the condition that is psychopathy, where it stemmed from, studies and future outlooks on it. psychopathy essentially is a personality disorder distinguished by a lack of empathy, guilt, manipulation of peers and pre-mediated and violent antisocial behaviour. People with said disorder have a considerable societal cost not only as a financial consequence of their offending behaviour
but also, absence of normal participation in an everyday life or lack thereof. There are also emotional, physical and psychological costs on victims who experience this disorder. The main ideas talked about are the different studies and the manifestation surrounding psychopathy, for instance psychopathic traits/behaviours can be evident from early childhood years. Unsympathetic and heartless traits can be seen in children which can increase to antisocial behaviour as they get older. Another point that is mentioned is psychopathic tendencies within genetic data research. Genetic investigations and research can have several risk factors due to the factor of environmental impacts on a person rather than just genes. There have been studies of the brain on the difference between a typical individual and an individual with a high level of psychopathic traits which suggests the individual with traits shows low activities in a number of areas in the brain such as emotional stimuli. Further research governing the cognitive and ‘the degree of malleability in how individuals with psychopathy process affective information’ (Viding, McCrory, Seara-Cardoso, (2014).
A strength in this article would be the amount of research that has gone into such a disorder and the outcomes and findings they have achieved in order to progress. The authors are ‘now better placed than ever before’ (Viding, McCrory, Seara-Cardoso, (2014). These findings have been supported by the authors studies and experimental data to understand psychopathy. Another positive of the article and its research would be purpose of it which is clearly stated in the future outlook section of the article. The purpose being identifying young people at most risk of developing psychopathic traits in adulthood and providing the support needed to reduce further risk of future antisocial behaviour. Considering the amount of research there isn’t a lot of statistical evidence being used which if it were, would further strengthen their exploration and analysis of the disorder.
Macdonald, G. S. (2015). Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact? Violence Against Women
This journal regarding in essence is about the understanding of domestic violence and child welfare. Physical, emotional, psychological and developmental risks have been well established and noticed which has led to statutes in England and Wales that have received a number of police apprise regarding such incidents (Macdonald, 2015). Research into such an issue is still ongoing to further culminate domestic violence. Within the family justice system, domestic violence occurs repeatedly at the point of separation or post separation between a couple. The perpetrator then is a potential risk at harming and abusing both a child and significant other (typically a women). There have been studies and cases to detect domestic violence and recognise controlling and abusive behaviours within a relationship. This research has proven to be successful as children within an abusive relationship have stopped contact with their victimiser because of obvious distress, and their opposition to contact was respected. Other reports incorporated involvement with social services as a result of numerous allegations against perpetrators (usually father).
This journal has many strengths such as the author providing direct links to references. The structure overall of the reference list is well ordered and very easy to read as it is alphabetically arranged. This type of structure is also appealing to a reader. A further cogency with this journal is the authors biographical information, she is a qualified social worker who works at a university as a lecturer which gives her the authority to write about such a matter and for it to be used without any bias. A weakness within this journal is its lack of international relevance as it is only focused primary on a specific geographical area, England and Wales. This means that it is not relevant to anybody out side of these areas and only limited to a certain audience.