Table of contents
- Problems and challenges of developing speaking
- Speaking strategies
Speaking is imperative to human communication that it provides us to express our opinions, ideas, and feelings( Riverse1978: 162). Huebner (1969:203) states that speaking is the most critical communication skill. In our life, mostly, we use speaking skills rather than others, for instance, reading or writing. Good communication skill leads to success in every aspect of our life, whether it is education or work. Nunan (1991) noted, 'success is defined in the ability to carry out a conversation in the (target) language''. Murcia (1978: 91) says for language speaking is a must, and it evaluates from the beginning as someone was born, by the first contact with the language. Learning procedure requires to gain comprehension, grammar, pronunciation, and fluency. Harris (1974: 81) states that the fluency is the case of speed of the flow of the speech, while accuracy center on issues of appropriation and other formal factors. All of those factors mentioned above are essential for language teaching to be understood by others.
When it comes to learning speaking a second language, most learners find it demanding to succeed since it depends on speaking and listening simultaneously( Nunan 2012). Speaking is a productive process that requires connecting sentences, structures, organizing ideas, and response without preparing. During the learning and producing speaking process, all learners encounter difficulties that cause to teaching them also seem to have challenges. Because the definition of learning and teaching is interrelated with each other, which leads to successful results for both learners and teachers. Some of the theoretical findings suggest that their studies develop and facilitate the way of teaching, in particular, step by step for advanced level following speaking strategies.
Problems and challenges of developing speaking
Ur (1996) contends that speaking as the most crucial skill among the four skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) because knowing a language is referred to as speakers of that language. That means using a language is more important rather than familiar about it because there is no need to know a lot about the language if we can’t use it (Scrivener,2005,p.146).
Moreover, Zhang (2009) argued that most English learners consider speaking the most challenging area to enhance, and they are still unskilled to communicating purpose. According to Ur (1996), many factors lead to challenges in speaking:
- Inhibition- afraid of criticism, shyness to express ideas, produce speaking, and make mistakes.
- Nothing to say- lack of motive to express themselves.
- Low or uneven participation- while just one participation tend to talk much, others speak very little or not at all 4.Mother-tongue use-learners prefer to use their mother tongue because it is easier to communicate and cause to feel less exposed.
Furthermore, Rababa’h (2005) pointed out that other factors cause problems in speaking English amongst learners. Some elements are restricted to the learners themselves that teaching techniques, the curriculum, and the learning atmosphere, also, lack of necessary vocabulary and organizing sentences can be a barrier to communicate a second language. Motivation is also the primary element to urge learners to speak that cause to risk-taking without hesitation. Motivation is a central power that determines how a learner acts for a task at all, how much energy he or she dedicates to it, and how long he or she keeps (Littlewood, 1984, p.53).
Interaction and communication with people provide development of speaking step by step that without them that learners can not express their opinion and stay stable in their knowledge degree.
According to Hoge (2012), although learners know a lot of grammar rules, parts of speech, clause, and phrases that they cannot perform their ability to participate in the classroom interaction instead, they rely on their teachers directly during classes. Brown (2000) states that interactive learning is one of the critical elements of all the existing theories concerning the evaluation of communicative competence in a target language. In that case, Interactive classes provide some strategies that such as doing a lot of pair work, group work, and receiving and producing language in a real-world context for meaningful communication purposes.
Anderson (1993), Chowdhury (2001), Lui (1998), and Li (1998) support the idea of challenges during the interactions in the classroom. Louma (2004) asserts that speaking in the second language is arduous that require a long-term period to improve the communicative process in the target language.
Admittedly, there are challenges in which learners are to experience that teachers are responsible for guiding their learners with their teaching strategies and methods that help create a learning environment. Jabeen (2013) states, Initial cause for students’ difficulties in speaking that the atmosphere does not contribute the learners regularly. Problems that students facing analyzed and data collected from Prime University EFL learners and teachers.
We find out that mastering traditional grammar, unproductive classroom surroundings, fear and anxiousness of making mistakes, vocabulary, and motive shortage to convey opinions and use of mother tongue are the demanding situations for L2 learners to grow their speaking skills.
Speaking strategy is a critical component of language learning that includes oral communicative strategies, communication strategies, conversation skills or oral communication strategies. According to O’Malley and Chamot (1990), speaking strategies are crucial because they help foreign language learners“in negotiating which means in which either linguistic systems or sociolinguistic policies are not shared among a second language learner and a speaker of the goal language” (p.43). For Hedge (2000), an experienced speaker knows how to utilize speaking strategies and he remarks that: “These techniques come into play whilst learners are not able to express what they need to mention because they lack the resources to do so successfully” (p. 52). These verbal and non-verbal strategies (e.g. verbal circumlocution, clarification, non-verbal mimicry, gestures, etc.) may be used to fill for a breakdown in conversation or for unknown phrases or topics, and also be used to improve successful conversation. In a current study Nakatani (2005) confirmed that scholars who have been taught speaking strategies made a vast development of their oral exams. According to study by Gallagher-Brett (2007), the three strategies used maximum by way of students had been practising, revising, and repetition at home after revision, and students stated that practice and revision are the most critical activities conducive to successful speaking of the second language. These strategies are metacognitive and even though they may be vital, Mariza Méndez López (2011)argues that educating students inside the use of speaking strategies to help them higher their performance while interacting in English.
The paper concludes that students lack of ability to talk in English because of essential vocabulary and grammar structure shortages. They additionally lack of sentence formation abilities, which cause to using the mother tongue. Students also think of making errors in speaking in front of gathering or their classmates very embarrassing, which leads to prefer no longer to speak English. Besides, it was found that environment does not provide students with opportunities to use learning strategies , and students tend to depend on teachers’ role to speak that they do not participate in English communication. Learners can increase their speaking capacity by developing learning strategies that allow them to become independent learner (Nakatani,2010).
It is essential to pay attention that teachers should implement strategy training in the course of teaching. Strategies need to be offered and demonstrated first, with instructors then allowing time for exercise of the method. Next, teachers have to inspire the usage of the ones strategies already presented in class that learners use many strategies in their studying procedure. According to Tudor (1996), a place of strategy studies which has attracted a great deal of attention is learner training. Providing strategy for students help them to take higher precedence of their studying.