Higher education is vital for generations irrespective of gender to lead a path of development and growth. Being emphasized by Swami Vivekananda – ‘To educate your women first and leave them to themselves, they will tell you what reforms are necessary’, but unfortunately there has been a gap in various perspectives. Considering countries like India has drastically reduced the gender gap from 2013 and as per HRD report it has considerably reduced gap by nine lakhs but still figures in profession and masters remained stagnant. In UK women has overpowered men in higher education but are lagging behind in pay rate and job satisfaction.
In India, women have outnumbered men in the masters of arts, Bachelors of Science (nursing), postgraduate in science and commerce stream but the graph get skewed in case of the undergraduate programs like BTech, Bachelors of Business Administration, LLB, Bachelor of Computer Administration. Significantly women have increased in last 5 years and expected to increase further as well. In contrast UK also, women have led the graph in almost two-thirds of degree subjects as per study done by UCAS (university admissions service). Both the countries have improved and women has considerably increasing for higher education.
With India, GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio) at 25.2 and UK also have higher enrolment for women as compared to men. But there are specific areas of study like engineering, LLB, Civil construction where it has been depicted that men have outnumbered the female. GER is calculated for age group 18-23 and it has shown in India women have lead in the streams of art and masters but again lowered in bachelors’ program. Same pattern has been established in UK with men increasing in streams like computer science, civil construction, engineering. Both the countries have almost higher enrolments of women over men except some streams.
Graduate Pay rates and job satisfaction
The saddening fact both the countries have huge gender gap in relation to pay rate and job satisfaction. It has been divulged by Monster Salary Index report India has median gender gap of 24.8% across Biomedical and biological sciences, economics, engineering, geosciences, atmospheres, health sciences, physics and astronomy, psychology and a narrower gap of 14.7 % in education and research. Women in UK are paid averagely 15.9 % low than men as per Times Higher Education (THE) 2018 survey. Also, as per DFE latest figures average difference between pay rate on grounds of work after graduation, one year after graduation and after post-graduation is 10 %.
As we can conclude women are majorly motivated for higher education and also believe in educating themselves but there is gender discrimination in jobs, profession, pay rate and satisfaction. Policies should be implemented to cover the difference and also make it equal for both of them. Women are not equally paid or are not equally treated at various market place creating world issue, which should be addressed immediately.