Human resources (HR) is the most important factor in an organization both educational organizations and other field organizations, the involvement of human resources in the organization is implemented in the form of labor, employees or employees. In the field of education, certain educational institutions are demanded to always improve their quality by providing comfort and safety to every teacher so that job satisfaction of a teacher can be achieved and will have an impact on the performance of the teacher itself.
The work of teachers today is different from a few decades ago. At this time a teacher is not only responsible for teaching and learning activities to students, such as learning to read, count, write, and other learning activities, but a teacher increases his responsibilities as parents of students while in the educational environment. Teachers are overloaded with tasks not related to teaching and learning activities such as extracurricular activities, attending meetings, managing student programs, managing student welfare, and management tasks.
Apart from the above, there are several things that cause the level of job satisfaction experienced by an educator (teacher), one of which is the number of teachers who often question their level of welfare such as salary which is still considered insufficient. In addition, some of these factors can also affect a teacher's job satisfaction, including leadership style, work environment, work stress and others.
Perguruan Ar-Rahman Medan is one of the educational institutions that continues to strive to develop, has 4 levels of education, namely Elementary Schools (SD), Junior High Schools (SMP), High Schools (SMA), and Vocational High Schools (SMK), with the number of staff and teachers is 117 people and has a total of 1,450 students.
Based on the pre-research results it is known that there are several things that affect job satisfaction of a teacher at the Perguruan Ar-Rahman Medan. Job satisfaction of a teacher can have an impact on the performance of the teacher himself, so the level of job satisfaction of a teacher must be really considered and become a serious matter to respond to Perguruan Ar-Rahman Medan. There are several factors that can affect the level of satisfaction of a teacher, namely work stress. The level of work stress of a teacher is also very influential on job satisfaction of a teacher at the Perguruan Ar-Rahman Medan. Some teachers said the high level of busyness they faced could cause them to experience stress at work in addition to the phenomenon that is currently rife that is lack of adherence and respect for students towards teachers. Besides job satisfaction is also closely related to the leadership style of a leader. Leaders must be able to see what is happening in their work environment and be able to provide appropriate solutions and be able to make policies in solving existing problems. Based on the literature from several previous studies, in addition to leadership style there are other factors that influence job satisfaction, one of which is the work environment, how the work environment is felt and accepted by each teacher at work.
Robbins (2010) suggests that leadership is the ability to influence a group to achieve a vision or goal. Furthermore Rivai (2014) states that Leadership Style is a set of characteristics used by leaders to influence subordinates so that organizational goals are achieved or it can also be said that leadership style is a pattern of behavior and strategy that is liked and often applied by a leader. Meanwhile, according to Suwatno and Priansa (2011) Leadership style is the behavior that is liked by the leader in the process of directing and influencing followers.
Educational leadership is a process of influencing, mobilizing and coordinating individuals in educational organizations/institutions to achieve educational goals. Like the principal's leadership, then he has a role in influencing, encouraging, guiding, directing and moving the teacher, staff, students, parents of students and other parties involved to move/participate in achieving the goals set. Charles W. Boardman in his book Democratic Supervision in Secondary School (1961) describes that:
As the educational leader of the school he must have the ability to organize and assist the faculty in formulating a program for the improvement of instruction in school. He must inspire confidence in teachers, secure cooperation in developing the supervision program, and stimulate them into active participation in the effort to attain its objectives.
According to Robbins (2010) there are four types of leadership styles, namely as follows:
- Charismatic leadership style is a leadership style that triggers followers by displaying heroic or extraordinary abilities when they observe certain behaviors of their leaders.
- Transactionion leadership style is a leadership style that guides or motivates followers to achieve the goals set by clarifying the requirements of roles and tasks.
- Transformational leadership style is a leadership style that inspires followers to go beyond their personal interests and is able to have a profound and extraordinary impact on the personalities of their followers.
- Visionary leadership style is a leadership style that is able to create and articulate a vision that is realistic, credible, and interesting about the future of an organization or organizational unit that is growing and improving.
Reitz in Rahayu (2017), in carrying out leader activities there are several factors that influence leadership style, namely:
- Personality (personality), past experience and expectations of leaders, this includes the values, background and experience will influence the choice of leadership style.
- Expectations and behavior of superiors.
- The characteristics, expectations and behavior of subordinates influence on what leadership style.
- Task needs, each subordinate's task will also affect the leader style.
- Climate and organizational policies influence the expectations and behavior of subordinates.
- Peer expectations and behavior.
Dimensions and indicators used refer to Robert House's path-goal theory (Robins and Coutler, 2010), namely:
- Types of Directives, such as leaders who tell them what to do, special guidance, obey rules, specific schedules.
- Supportive types, such as attention to needs, a good work climate.
- Participatory types, such as consultation decision-making, consider subordinate ideas and suggestions, provide freedom of opinion.
- Achievement-oriented types, such as setting challenging goals, extraordinary leaders.
The work environment according to Sedarmayanti (2009) is the overall tools and materials faced, the surrounding environment in which a person works, his work methods, and his work arrangements both as individuals and as a group. While the understanding of the work environment is also stated by Taiwo (2010), the work environment is everything, events, people and others that affect the way people work. According to Noah and Steve (2012) work environment is the overall relationship that occurs with employees in the workplace. Everything in the workplace is a work environment. From the above theory it can be concluded that the work environment is everything that exists around workers that can affect job satisfaction in carrying out their work so that maximum work results will be obtained.
The following are some of the factors that can influence the formation of a working environment condition associated with the ability of employees (Sedarmayanti, 2009), namely:
- Lighting/light at work
- Temperature at work
- Moisture at work
- Air circulation at work
- Noise at work
- Mechanical vibrations at work
- Smells at work
- Color setting at work
- Decoration at work
- Music at work
- Safety at work
Based on the indicators used in this study adapted from expert opinion theory as expressed by Budi W. Soetjipto (2009) including:
- Physical dimensions, measured using seven indicators, namely:
- b.Air circulation.
- Non-physical dimensions. Non-physical dimensions are measured using three indicators:
- a. Harmonious relationship.
- b. Opportunity to advance.
- c. Safety at work.
Robbins and Judge (2017) defines stress as an unpleasant psychological process that occurs in response to pressure from the environment. It was further explained that stress is a dynamic condition where individuals are faced with opportunities, demands, and resources related to the things that individuals want to achieve but the results are still uncertain. Griffin and Moorhead's (2014) definition describes stress as an adaptive response from a person to stimuli that cause excessive physical or psychological demands on him. Robbins and Judge (2017) mentions some negative conditions if employees experience stress. High employee turnover, high absenteeism, low performance, low job satisfaction, anxiety, and low work comfort. According to Sinambela in Sunyoto (2012) said that although stress is considered to have a bad influence, it certainly depends on the individual in addressing any problems or stress. Given the magnitude of the impact of stress on organizational performance, the company needs to monitor how the stress level of employees in carrying out their work.
According to Sopiah (2008) the causes of stress include the following:
1. Physical environment
Stressor because it is too noisy, not good lighting or security risks. Physical compressors are also visible in office settings, including poor office space design, lack of privacy, ineffective lighting and poor air quality.
2. Stress due to a role or task
Stressor because of the role or task, including conditions where employees have difficulty in understanding what is their job, the role he plays feels too heavy or plays various roles in the place where they work.
3. Causes of interpersonal stress
These compressors will increase when employees are divided into divisions within a department that are competed to win lucrative rewards. Differences in character, personality, background, perception, etc. allow for stress.
Reducing the number of employees is a cause of stress not only for those who have lost their jobs, but also for those who are still living.
According to Rivai and Mulyadi (2010), the causes of organizational stress consist of organizational policy, organizational structure, physical state in the organization, and the processes that occur within the organization. The best way to reduce stress at work according to Wahjono (2010) is to look for the causes and solve them such as: moving to another job, changing jobs and providing a new work environment, or even redesigning job design that allows reducing workload, time pressure and ambiguity and better communication is also possible to reduce stress levels.
Dimensions and Indicators of work stress according to Stephen P. Robbins which was translated by Hadyana Pujatamaka (2010) can be divided into:
- Psychological, including: quickly offended, not communicative, lack of concentration and, the level of concern.
- Physical, including: heart rate and blood pressure, physical fatigue, headaches, sleep problems (mostly or lack of sleep).
- Behavior, including: excessive smoking, delaying or avoiding work, sabotage behavior, abnormal eating behavior.
Job satisfaction is an individual thing. Every individual has different levels of satisfaction, as defined by Dadang (2013) job satisfaction is a pleasant or unpleasant emotional state of work, job satisfaction reflects one's feelings towards his work. Meanwhile, according to Siagian (2014) job satisfaction is a perspective both positive and negative about their work. according to Handoko (2012) job satisfaction is a pleasant or unpleasant emotional state with which employees view their work. Ostroff (1992) states that organizations that have more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations that have fewer satisfied employees. Employee satisfaction and attitude are important factors in determining their behavior and response to work and through this behavior and response organizational effectiveness can be achieved.
Mangkunegara (2009) states the factors that influence job satisfaction are:
- Employee factors, namely intelligence (IQ), special skills, age, gender, physical condition, education, work experience, years of service, personality, emotions, ways of thinking, perceptions and work attitudes.
- Job factors, namely the type of work, organizational structure, rank (class), position, quality of supervision, financial guarantees, job promotion opportunities, social interaction, and work relations.
Also in the opinion of As'ad (1995) factors that influence job satisfaction include:
- Psychological factors are factors related to employee psychology which include interests, job attenuation, attitude toward work, work feelings.
- Physical factors are factors related to the physical work environment and the physical condition of employees, including the type of work, work time management, work equipment, air circulation, employee health.
- Financial factors are factors related to employee security and welfare, which include payroll systems, social security, the amount of benefits, facilities provided, promotions and others.
- Social factors are factors that relate to social interaction both between fellow employees, with their superiors, as well as employees with different types of work.
According to Robbins and Judge (2013), job satisfaction has five dimensions, namely:
- The work itself with indicators: tasks, learning opportunities, and responsibilities.
- Current salary, with indicators: payroll system and payroll justice.
- Promotion opportunities, with indicators: promotion opportunities.
- Leaders, with indicators: style of leadership.
- Co-workers, with indicators: support among co-workers.
Leadership Style Has a Positive and Significant Impact on Job Satisfaction
The results showed that the leadership style variable had a positive and significant effect on the teacher job satisfaction variable. This shows that if the principal's leadership style is good, teacher's job satisfaction is also good, and vice versa if the principal's leadership style is bad, the teacher's job satisfaction will decrease. Leadership style is a way used by a boss in influencing his subordinates and can create harmonious integration and encourage employee passion that is nothing but to achieve organizational goals (Putra, et al., 2013). However, based on the results of the study note that there are still dimensions of the leadership style variable which is in the category of disagreeing, namely the dimensions or type of supportive, which means that the principal is still unable to support and also motivate the teachers to do the task well. According to Luthans (2005), supportive leadership style is a leadership style that is always willing to explain all problems to subordinates, is approachable and satisfies the hearts of employees. This type of leader usually shows a friendly attitude and shows concern for his subordinates, taking into account the needs of his subordinates, showing their concern to create prosperity and work environment friendly. This style is very effective when facing a difficult, stressful, boring or dangerous job. This behavior is very necessary in situations where the task or physical or psychological relationship is not good.
The results of this study are consistent with research conducted by Malia (2017) and Prayatnya (2016) states that leadership style has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. One of the job satisfaction of teachers will be influenced by one of the principal's leadership style, the better the leadership of a school principal, the better the job satisfaction level of the teachers.
Work Environment Has a Positive and Significant Impact on Job Satisfaction
The results showed that the work environment variable had a positive and significant effect on the teacher job satisfaction variable. This shows that if the better the work environment, the job satisfaction of teachers will also be better, and vice versa if the work environment is poor then the teacher job satisfaction decreases.
The work environment is one of the factors that can affect employee job satisfaction to achieve company goals. Employees really need a good, clean work environment, and can also support their personal comfort and safety. The work environment that is not conducive can cause negative effects such as low morale, high absenteeism, the level of errors in doing work, high turnover and so forth. Companies need to provide job satisfaction to employees, one of which is to provide a comfortable, safe and pleasant work environment (Sitinjak, 2018).
Based on observations made by the author, it can be seen that the physical environment in the Ar-Rahman University in Medan is still not good, especially in terms of facilities that are not yet available, such as practical tools for vocational students so that teachers find it difficult to provide direction and explanation about teaching material. In addition, interviews with several teachers stated that teachers felt the availability of supporting facilities for teaching and learning activities was still lacking, such as lack of computer facilities, practical equipment, chairs and table facilities that were no longer suitable for use, and so on.
The results of this study are consistent with research conducted by Aruan and Fakhri (2015), Widiaryati, et al. and puspasari, et al. (2017) which states that the work environment has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. A good and conducive work environment makes the teachers feel safe, comfortable and happy in carrying out their duties and responsibilities.
Work Stress Has Negative and Significant Impact on Job Satisfaction
The results showed that the work stress variable had a negative and significant effect on teacher job satisfaction. This shows that if teacher job stress increases, teacher job satisfaction decreases or decreases, conversely if teacher job stress decreases, teacher job satisfaction increases or is good.
In the work it is undeniable there will be a lot of pressure that can potentially cause stress. Conditions like this will have a negative effect on job satisfaction and ultimately can reduce the level of productivity of these employees. Job stress can cause a variety of physical and psychological disorders that can interfere with one's work activities and productivity. Based on observations made by researchers, it can be seen that work stress experienced by teachers in this school is caused due to high task demands, causing teachers to experience physical fatigue and if it happens continuously it is feared to result in work stress. This is in accordance with the opinion of Sutton in Pasaribu (2007) which states that role demands become a pressure for teachers when organizational expectations regarding student attitudes are unclear (role ambiguity), when the work of teachers is excessive (role overload) or when fulfilling one expectation but is difficult or can not meet other expectations (role confilict). In addition, according to Jhonson, et al. in Solichin (2013) states that workload and time pressure, in other words intrinsic to job factors are stress factors that have a dominant influence on teacher performance.