Essay on Postpartum Depression Symptoms

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To date, few researches have investigated the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on mental health among mothers. This is especially germane with the emotional and mental health vulnerability encircling pregnancy and childbirth. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prevalence of PPD and its related factors among women in Pakistan during the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study is focused on the impact of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Mindfulness on Postpartum depression during the period of Covid-19. In Pakistan, the current birth rate in 2020 is 27.530 births per 1000 people. 29 million children will be born in South Asia and Pakistan is expected to record 5 million births since the covid-19 was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 (UNICEF, 2020).

For mothers, the baby is Allah’s biggest blessing. Having a baby is one of the most wonderful things in your life and may be a happy and invigorating experience. One can read books, and articles and also ask your family members and kinfolks but no one can tell you how it feels to become a mother. You can prepare yourself for the nitty-gritty experience of becoming a mother. The birth of a baby can trigger confusion of emotions from happiness to fear. These tangled emotions can lead to Postpartum depression.

Postpartum depression

According to the Geisinger Let’s Talk about It: postpartum depression, 2020 It’s common to feel a lot of emotions, including sadness, after giving birth, but some mothers experience something heavier called postpartum depression. These feelings often begin when your newborn is just 2 or 3 days old, but you’re feeling better by the time your baby is 1 or 2 weeks old. If the baby blues don’t go away or you feel unhappy, hopeless, or purged for longer than 2 weeks, you may have postpartum depression. Postpartum depression’s symptoms last longer and are more severe. It can develop during the first year after childbirth. Alhusen & Alvarez's (2016) study demonstrates that postpartum depression usually begins within the first month after childbirth, but it can begin during pregnancy or for up to a year after birth Postpartum depression can be confusing. Negative emotions are worrisome since new parents expect to feel extreme excitement for their child.

Symptoms of postpartum depression

Knowing the symptoms can help you spot postpartum depression. Symptoms may vary from person to person and, in some cases, day to day.

Symptoms can include:

    • Anxiety and/or panic attacks
    • Depressed mood or sadness
    • Crying frequently
    • Feelings of worthlessness, worrying that you are a bad parent
    • Withdrawing from friends and family
    • A sense of hopelessness or that thing won’t get better
    • Sudden mood swings
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Intense irritability
    • Lack of interest in or difficulty bonding with your baby
    • Thoughts of harming yourself or your baby

Difference between Postpartum Depression and Baby Blues

Becoming a mother is a marvelous and enormous change in your life and also a tough gig. You probably expect to feel happy, joyful, and proud about the new member of your family, but many moms feel moody and overwhelmed instead. It’s very normal to feel this way for a little while. After a mom gives birth her hormone levels drop, which affects the mood and behavior of a mother.

Mothers might get worried and confused about the care for their baby and it makes them feel stressed and put in a situation they haven’t dealt with before.

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When It’s the Baby Blues

    • You feel anxious, overwhelmed, and irritable
    • You don’t feel like eating or taking care of yourself because you’re exhausted.
    • Your mood swings quickly from happy to sad. In one moment, you’re proud of the thing that you’re doing as a new mom. But in the next, you’re crying and frustrated because you think you’re not up to the task or you are not fit for it.

When It’s Postpartum Depression

    • You don’t feel like you’re doing a good job as a new mom.
    • You’re not bonding with your baby
    • You feel hopeless, sad, worthless, or alone all the time and you cry often.
    • You can’t eat, sleep, or take care of your baby because of your overwhelming despair.
    • You could have anxiety and panic attacks.
    • And sometimes you even want to harm yourself or the baby

Postpartum Depression and Prevalence in Pakistani Mothers

You are not the first to pass this way up to 80% of new mothers experience emotional ups and downs in that period and get what’s called the “baby blues” short-term dips in mood caused by all of the changes that occur with the birth of a new baby. Every 1 out of 8 mothers experience postpartum depression in the United States (Bauman et al (2018).

According to the study by Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee & Arthur, and David (2009), the prevalence of postpartum depression in Asian countries ranged from 3.5% to 63.3% where Malaysia and Pakistan had the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Among Asian countries, Pakistan has the highest prevalence rate of PDD which is 28%- 63 %.(R.Aliani, Khawaja 2017). Various social, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in the development of PPD in Pakistan. The study by Ali, N.S., Ali, B.S. & Azam, I.S 2009 says the overall prevalence of postpartum anxiety and depression was found to be 28.8 percent and the result of their study also demonstrated that domestic violence, difficulty in breastfeeding at birth, and unplanned current pregnancy were found to be significantly associated with postpartum anxiety and depression in the in peri-urban communities of Karachi.

Early Maladaptive Schema

Have you ever wondered why you'll rehash undesirable, however recognizable, designs in connection with others or why you've got specific propensities to see yourself, others, and the world in a certain way? One mental viewpoint for understanding these designs and ways of making sense of your encounter includes a center on how early childhood encounters shape imperative convictions and sentiments almost yourself.

What are Early Maladaptive Schemas?

Early maladaptive schemas can be described as broad, self-perpetuating, and maladaptive life themes originating from repetitive adverse relational experiences with significant others in childhood and adolescence (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003). In contrast to previous definitions of EMSs (e.g., McGinn et al., 1995; Young & Gluhoski, 1996), maladaptive behaviors are no longer considered part of a schema but are now theorized to develop as responses to a schema.

The concept of schemas can be linked to the German philosopher I. Kant (Dahlin, 2001; Pace, 1988; Stein & Young, 1992). In his studies, Bartlett found consistent distortions when individuals recalled patterns of narratives. To explain this finding, he used the concept of schemas.

Development of EMS

EMS started with something that was done to us by our families or by another significant figure in life, which harms us in a few ways. We might have been surrendered criticized overprotected, candidly or physically mishandled avoided, or deprived. According to Young et al. (2003), the main cause for developing an EMS is that the universal core psychological needs of the child (secure attachment, autonomy, freedom to express valid needs and emotions, spontaneity and play, realistic limits) are repeatedly frustrated. When these needs are not met due to ongoing adverse experiences in the nuclear family or, later in life, with peers and the community, the individual is at risk of developing EMSs (Young et al, 2003). Thus, an EMS originates from ongoing negative social interactions, e.g. mistreatment and traumatization, but overprotection may also contribute to the formation of an EMS (Young et al, 2003). EMSs reflect the child’s attempts to make sense of these experiences and to adapt to its environment. As a consequence, the child fails to accomplish important psychosocial developmental tasks (e.g., secure attachments). The individual may respond to an activated EMS with a characteristic coping style that perpetuates the schema. Young et al. (2003) distinguish between surrendering (giving in), avoidance (avoiding the activation of the schema), or overcompensation (acting as if the opposite of the schema were true). 

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Essay on Postpartum Depression Symptoms. (2024, April 18). Edubirdie. Retrieved May 26, 2024, from
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