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Plant Leaf Disease Detection Using Machine Learning

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When plants and crops are affected by pests it affects the agricultural production of the country. Usually farmers or experts observe the plants with naked eye for detection and identification of disease. But this method can be time processing, expensive and inaccurate. Automatic detection using image processing techniques provide fast and accurate results. This project is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Advances in computer vision present an opportunity to expand and enhance the practice of precise plant protection and extend the market of computer vision applications in the field of precision agriculture. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. This method paper is a new approach in detecting plant diseases using the deep convolutional neural network trained and fine -tuned to fit accurately to the database of a plant’s leaves that was gathered independently for diverse plant diseases. The advance and novelty of the developed model lie in its simplicity; healthy leaves and background images are in line with other classes, enabling the model to distinguish between diseased leaves and healthy ones or from the environment by using deep CNN.


One of the important sectors of Indian Economy is Agriculture. Employment to almost 60% of the countries workforce is provided by Indian agriculture sector. India is known to be the world’s largest producer of pulses, rice, wheat, spices and spice products. Farmer’s economic growth depends on the quality of the products that they produce, which relies on the plant’s plays an instrumental role. Plants are highly prone to diseases that affect the growth of the plant which in turn affects the ecology of the farmer. In order to detect a plant disease at very initial stage, use of automatic disease detection technique is advantageous. The symptoms of plant diseases are conspicuous in different parts of a plant such as leaves, etc. Manual detection of plant disease using leaf images is a tedious job. Hence, it is required to develop computational methods which will make the process of disease detection and classification using leaf images automatic.


Paper [1] : presents classification and detection techniques that can be used for plant leaf disease classification. Here preprocess is done before feature extraction. RGB images are converted into white and then converted into grey level image to extract the image of vein from each leaf. Then basic Morphological functions are applied on the image. The image is converted into binary image. After that if binary pixel value is 0 its converted to corresponding RGB image value. Finally by using pearson correlation and Dominating feature set and Naïve Bayesian classifier disease is detected.

Paper [2]: there are four steps. Out of them the first one is gathering image from several part of the country for training and testing. Second part is applying Gaussian filter is used to remove all the noise and thresholding is done to get the all green color component. K-means clustering is used for segmentation. All RGB images are converted into HSV for extracting feature.

Paper [3]: presents the technique of detecting jute plant disease using image processing. Image is captured and then it is realized to match the size of the image to be stored in the database. Then the image is enhanced in quality and noises are removed. Hue based segmentation is applied on the image with customized thresholding formula. Then the image is converted into HSV from RGB as it helps extracting region of interest. This approach proposed can significantly support detecting stem oriented diseases for jute plant.

Paper [4]: The problem of efficient plant disease protection is closely related to the problems of sustainable agriculture Inexperienced pesticide usage can cause the development of long-term resistance of the pathogens, severely reducing the ability to fight back. Timely and accurate diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the pillars of precision agriculture. It is crucial to prevent unnecessary waste of financial and other resources, thus achieving healthier production in this changing environment, appropriate and timely disease identification including early prevention has never been more important.

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Paper[5]: Modern technologies have given human society the ability to produce enough food to meet the demand of more than 7 billion people. However, food security remains threatened by a number of factors including climate change, the decline in pollinators, plant diseases, and others. Plant diseases are not only a threat to food security at the global scale, but can also have disastrous consequences for small-holder farmers whose livelihoods depend on healthy crops.

Paper [6]: Agriculture has become much more than simply a means to feed ever growing populations. However, plant diseases are threatening the livelihood of this important source. Plant diseases cause major production and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. For example, soybean rust (a fungal disease in soybeans) has caused a significant economic loss and just by removing 20% of the infection, the farmers may benefit with an approximately 11 million-dollar profit.

Paper [7]: The methodology includes image acquisition, image preprocessing, feature extraction with Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and finally classified with two types: Unsupervised classification and supervised classification.

Paper [8]: RGB images are converted into gray scale image using color conversion. Various enhancement techniques like histogram equalization and contrast adjustment are used for image quality enhancement. Different types of classification features like SVM, ANN, FUZZY classification are used here. Feature extract6ion uses different types of feature values like texture feature, structure feature and geometric feature. By using ANN and FUZZY classification, it can identify the disease of the paddy plant.

Paper [9]: The proposed work involves four modules: Image collection, Feature extraction, diseased plant leaves classification and Performance evaluation.

Paper [10]: image processing technique are used to detect the citrus leaf disease. This system includes: Image preprocessing, segmentation of the leaf using K-means clustering to determine the diseased areas, feature extraction and classification of disease. Uses Gray-Level Co-Occurrence matrix (GLCM) for feature extraction and classification is done using support vector machine (SVM).


This paper gives the survey on different disease classification methods that can be used for leaf disease detection and techniques used for automatic detection as well as classification of plant leaf diseases has been described later. Jute, Grape, Paddy, okra are some of those species on which the algorithms and methods were tested. Therefore, related diseases for these plants were taken for identification. With very less computational efforts the optimum results were obtained which also shows the efficiency of algorithm in recognition and classification of the leaf diseases. Another advantage of using these methods is that the plant diseases can be identified at early stage or the initial stage. To improve recognition rate in classification process Artificial Neural Network, Bayes Classifier, Fuzzy Logic and hybrid algorithms can also be used.


  1. Dhiman Mondal, Dipak Kumar Kole, Aruna Chakraborty, D. Dutta Majumder’ Detection and Classification Technique of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Disease in Okra Leaf Imagesusing Leaf Vein Extraction and Naive Bayesian Classifier., 2015, International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Implementations- (ICSCTI) Department of ECE, FET, MRIU, Faridabad, India, Oct 8-10, 2015.
  2. Pranjali B. Padol, Prof. AnjilA.Yadav, ‘SVM Classifier Based Grape Leaf Disease Detection’ 2016 Conference on Advances in Signal Processing(CAPS) Cummins college of Engineering for Women, Pune. June 9-11, 2016.
  3. Detecting jute plant disease using image processing and machine learning 2016 3rd International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Communication Technology (ICEEICT)
  4. Aakanksha Rastogi, Ritika Arora, Shanu Sharma, “Leaf Disease Detection and Grading using Computer Vision Technology &Fuzzy Logic,” presented at the 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), IEEE, 2015, pp. 500–505.
  5. Garima Tripathi, Jagruti Save, “AN IMAGE PROCESSING AND NEURAL NETWORK BASED APPROACH FOR DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT LEAF DISEASES,” Int. J. Comput. Eng. Technol. IJCET, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 14–20, Apr. 2015.
  6. S. Arivazhagan, R. Newlin Shebiah, S. Ananthi, S. Vishnu Varthini, “Detection of unhealthy region of plant leaves and classification of plant leaf diseases using texture features,” Agric Eng Int CIGR J., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 211–217, Mar. 2013.
  7. Ms.Poojapawer ,Dr.varshaTukar, prof.parvinpatil ‘Cucumber Disease detection using artificial neural network’
  8. Detection and measurement of paddy leaf disease symptoms using image processing
  9. K. Muthukannan, P. Latha, R. PonSelvi and P. Nisha, “CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASED PLANT LEAVES USING NEURAL NETW ORK ALGORITHMS,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1913–1918, Mar. 2015.
  10. Detection of leaf diseases and classification using digital image processing2017 International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS)

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Plant Leaf Disease Detection Using Machine Learning. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved October 3, 2022, from
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